Science and Islam



  ENTRY 1
 

"K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>

§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý «ñ½ý «Å÷¸ÙìÌ, Žì¸õ !
 
...................................
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²üÚì ¦¸¡ûÇ ÁÚ츢ýÈÉ÷.
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40 DAYS IN THE WOMB

 Joe Leigh Simpson, Professor of Obstetrics and  Gynecology at the North Western University in Chicago in the United States of America. As we know, these chromosomes contain all the characteristics which the new human being will have such as thecolor of the eyes, skin, hair,etc. Hence, many of the details in the  human being’s make-up are determined in his chromosomes. These chromosomes begin to form during the early nutfah stage of
embryonic development. In other words, the distinguishing features of the new human being are determined from the
very beginning at the nutfah stage. Allah, the Most Exalted, the Most Glorified, has stated this fact in the Qur’aan:

During the first 40 days of gestation, all the body parts and organs are  completely, though          consecutively formed. The Prophet Muhammad, (sallallahu  ‘alaihi wa sallam), has informed us in a  hadeeth that:  In every one of you, all
components of your creation are gathered together in your mothers’ womb  by 40 days. (Narrated in Saheeh
Muslim and Al-Bukhaari).  In another Hadeeth, Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)  said: When forty-two nights have passed over the drop (nutfah), Allah sends an angel to it, who shapes it and makes  its ears, eyes, skin, flesh and bones. Then he says, "O Lord, is it male or female?" and your Lord decides what
he wishes. (Narrated in Saheeh Muslim). Professor Simpson studied these two hadeeths extensively,  noting that the first 40 days constitute a clearly distinguishable stage of embryogenesis. He was particularly impressed by  the absolute precision and accuracy of those hadeeths. Then during one of the         conferences which he attended  he gave the following opinion: So that the two hadeeths that have been noted can provide us with a specific time table for the  main embryological development before 40 days. Again, the point had been made repeatedly by other speakers this morning
that these hadeeths could not have been obtained on the basis of the scientific knowledge that was available at the time
of their          recording.  Professor Simpson says thatreligion can successfully guide the pursuit of knowledge. The  West, as we said, has rejected this. But here is an American scientist who says that religion, namely Islam, can achieve this with
success. By analogy, if you go to a factory and have with you the operation manual of the factory, then you will be able to easily  understand the kind of operation that goes on in that factory, thanks to that manual by the factory designer and builder. But  if you do not have this manual with you, chances are much less that you will have good understanding of the various processes  there.
Professor Simpson said: It follows, I think, that not only is there no  conflict between genetics and religion, but in fact religion can guide science by adding revelation to some traditional scientific  approaches. That there exists statements in the Qur’aan shown by science to be valid, which supports knowledge in the Qur’aan  having been derived from Allah.
This is true. I also say that the Muslims can lead the way in the  pursuit of knowledge and that they can accord knowledge its proper status. Moreover, Muslims know how to use knowledge as proof of  the existence of Allah, May Allah be Exalted and Glorified, and to affirm the Messengership of Muhammad (sallallahu  ‘alaihi wa sallam).
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if you require more information about this, please visit;
http://www.beconvinced.com

anbudan
sulaiman.



ENTRY 2
 

From: "Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>

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«ñ½ý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý



 ENTRY 3
 

RRasheed@gisqatar.org.qa
 
 

First and foremost, it has to be noted that the theory of evolution is not a scientific argument, but a dogmatic philosophy and a materialistic world view hiding behind the mask of science. However, it is not faith in this dogmatic philosophy, which has had a stimulating role in the birth and development of modern science, but faith in Allah.

Most of the people who have pioneered modern science believed in the existence of Allah, and while studying science they sought to discover the universe Allah has created, to see His laws and the details in His creation. Scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, Keppler, Galileo, Cuvier (the father of paleontology), Linnaeus (the pioneer of
botany and zoology) and Isaac Newton all studied science by faith. They believed in the existence of Allah and that the whole universe came into existence by His creation. Considered to be the biggest genius of our age, Einstein was another devout scientist who believed in Allah.

Nevertheless, the theory of evolution came into view by the re-awakening of ancient materialistic philosophies and became widespread in the 19th century. This philosophy supposes that matter is absolute and infinite. This materialistic philosophy does not hold anything to be real except the matter, so it tries to explain the universe and nature through purely material factors. Since it denies creation right from the start, it puts forward that every being, whether animate or inanimate, appeared without any means of creation, but by mere coincidence and then acquired an order.

However, the human mind is organised to comprehend the existence of an organising will wherever it sees an order. Materialistic philosophy, which is contrary to this very basic characteristic of the human mind, produced
"the theory of evolution" in the middle of the 19th century.

The Theory of Evolution: Darwin's Imagination

The person who put forward the theory of evolution the way it is defended today, was an amateur English naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin.  Darwin had never taken a formal biology education. He only took an amateur interest in the subject of nature and living things. His interest drove him to volunteer for boarding on the official discovery ship named H.M.S.Beagle that set out from England in 1832 and travelled around different regions of the world for five years. Young Darwin was greatly impressed by various living species, and particularly by various finches he saw in the Galapagos Islands. He thought that the variance in their beaks was caused by their adaptation to their habitat. With this idea in mind, he supposed that the origin of life and species lay in the concept of "adaptation to the environment". According to Darwin, living species were not created individually by Allah, but came from a common ancestor and differentiated
from each other as a result of natural conditions.

Although Darwin's hypothesis was not based on any scientific discovery or experiment, in time, he turned it into a pretentious theory with the support and encouragement he received from the famous materialist biologists of his time. The idea was that the individuals who adapted to the habitat in the best way transferred their qualities to the next generations, and therefore, these advantageous qualities accumulating in time changed the individual to a species totally different from its ancestors. (The origin of these "advantageous qualities" was unknown). According to Darwin, man was the most developed outcome of this blind mechanism.

Darwin named this process "evolution by natural selection". He thought he had found the "origin of species"; the origin of one species was another species. He published these views in his book titled The Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection in 1859.

While developing his theory, Darwin was impressed by many evolutionist biologists preceding him, and primarily by Lamarck. According to Lamarck, living creatures were passing the traits they acquired during their lifetime from one generation to another, and were thus evolving. For instance, giraffes evolved from antelope-like animals by extending their necks further and further from generation to generation as they tried to reach higher and higher branches for food.

But both Darwin and Lamarck were mistaken, because biochemistry did not exist at that time and genetics was unknown. Therefore, their theories depended totally on their powers of imagination.

While the echoes of Darwin's book lingered on, an Austrian botanist, Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance in 1865. These laws refuted the idea of passing the acquired traits onto subsequent generations. Not much heard of until the end of the century, Mendel's discovery gained great importance at the beginning of the 1900's. This was the genesis of the science of genetics. Again in the same years, the structure of the genes and the chromosomes was discovered. And in the 1950's, the discovery of the DNA molecule that includes the genetic information put the theory in a great crisis. The reason was the incredible complexity of the DNA, whose origin could never be explained by any random process.

All these developments should actually have caused Darwin's theory to be banished to the dusty shelves of history. However certain circles insisted on revising, renewing, and raising the theory up to a scientific platform.
All these efforts were very meaningful in indicating that behind the theorylaid some ideological intentions rather than scientific concerns.

Allah - The Almighty GOD
=========================



   ENTRY 4
 

"Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>
 

Dear Rasheed,
Thank-you very much for your comments. I really appreciate them. But I wantto tell you something about the notion of science of science  itself. There is  a notion of scince which is still foreign to all those whom you mentioned including Einstein and many others.  You see there TWO kinds of sciences : the positistic and hermeneutic. While the West developed  the positivistic sciences(and because of which we have great technologies, including the present Cyberspace)  Indians particularly the Tamils developed the hermenetic sciences which I have resuscitated and on the basis of which I have developed Agamic Psychology, Process Gramar and what not. The basic papers are available in the pages of Dravidian Philosophy Campus (http://members.tripod.com/loga/tindex.htm) At the moment this distinction is also very vigorously debated in the West where they are distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative sciences. Below I
reproduce my latest paper and the briefest on the notion of Hermeneutic science in which I also make reference to Tolkaappiyam. This notion of hermeneutis science is the science of destruction of IGNORANCE  that  IS ALREADY within us and which is attributed to MAALAM, a stuff that breeds DARKNESS within us and because of which WE CANNOT SEE even if it is infront of us. The Tamils, to eternal credit, have transormed the field of religion
into a field of Hermeneutic Science and the credit goes to THIRUMULAR and
MEYKANDAR amongst many others. I have translated Meykandar,s Civanjana BOtham into  English and is available in full in the Campus. The extensive introduction there also elaborates the notion of Hermeneutic Science and how
it stands in realtion to quantitaive scinces. Please read it carefully and post me any further questions you may have.

One more thing: to be a scientist, wether positivistic or hermeneutis is NOT TO BE DOGMATIC. There are NO DOGMAS in science. For all scientific knowledge is CONSTRUCTIVE and hence as Meykandar would say ACATHTHARIVU. And as it said by Arunandi : ARivinaal aRin-tha yaavum acatththu. Kuhn has noted that in the history of science where paradigms shift. More recently Foucault in France has begun to talk  about the archeology of knowledge, how there are underground forces introducing DISCONTINUIIES and so forth in the emergence of DISCOURSES particularly of the scietific type. And furtheremore what impels the scientists, wether positivistic or Hermenutic is the NOTION OF TRUTH and not, I think, anything else. Of course the TRUTH may the presnece
of ALLAH or the DANCE OF SIVA but that is not discovered through quantitative experiments and explorations but rather by the route of Hermeneutic endeavours where the DARKNESS that does not allow us to
UNDERSTAND that gets destroyed.
Hope to hear from you.

THE NOTION OF HERMENEUTIC SCIENCE
                        Dr.K.Loganathan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Sept 1998

1. Objectivity in Hermeneutic Science

While the West with its preoccupation with reason and rationality developed the scientistic forms sciences which ultimately results in novel technological achievements and hence progress in material culture, the Dravidian folks appear to have developed the hermeneutic sciences which leads to developments in spiritual  or psychological technologies and hence improvements in mental and physical health.  The essential principles of this form of science  is more inclusive
than the mathetically oriented scientistics and hence incorporates a conception of human rationality that is more comprehensive. There is a more inclusive concept of reason that has agitated the best of the Dravidian folks and has finally enabled them to understand Metaphysica Universalis as outlined in the 13th cent. Civajnana Botham  of Meykandar. It should be noted that Metaphysica Universalis is possible only within the notion of
Hermeneutic Sciences.

The phrase " vinaiyin  n-Ingki  viLangkiya aRivin munaivan" that occurs  in one of the sutras in TolkAppiyam outlines a notion of OBJECTIVITY  that is central to the Hermeneutic Science that we are trying to articulate here. Only an individual who frees himself from prejudices of all sorts (vinai) and because of which he becomes a luminary (munaivan)  can be objective and see a thing as it is, as it discloses itself from within itself.  This is phenomenology in the true
sense of the word (iyal n-eRi)  and only a person who pursues his studies with this phenomenological stance well established , can see TRUTHS  and generate a TEXT that can be authoritative (muthal n-Ul)

 Within the phenomenological attitude a person must be DETACHED and hence be NOTHING  at least during those moments he is investigating something.  Only when he keeps the possibility of NOTHINGNESS  established firmly in understanding can he remain detached, be free of prejudices and hence OBJECTIVE.

Now since objectivity as such is related to a way of Being and  hence SEEING it follows that  genuine hermeneutic sciences can be developed only by choosing UNDERSTANDING as that which ought to be investigated.  Since human understanding discloses itself as discourses of various kinds i.e. TEXTS in general, TEXTS are what ought to be procured and investigated, something we see so eminently in the body of TolkAppiyam itself. Over and above the verbal
texts, the nonverbal texts such as those obtained in the Baum Test and Family Portrait Test and such other spontaneous productions of man are also taken as TEXTS , very useful for gaining a true understanding of the machinations of the human mind.
 
2.The Notion of RELIABILITY in Hermeneutic Science

With this clarification it is possible now to explain the meaning of RELIABITY as it obtains in the hermeneutic sciences.  The Hermeneutic Scientist in order to be truly OBJECTIVE , has to be NOTHING in terms of prejudices, at least during those precious moments at which he is an investigator. He would then obtain a TEXT without tempering with the
productive processes, abstain from   interference and such direct or indirect manipulations that
would serve to project his OWN ideas rather than that of the subject being investigated. The investigator is free to
create a context of a kind for otherwise TEXTS of  useful kind cannot be obtained. Having created the necessary context in which the subject produces, he should then withdraw himself from it,  be ABSENT, be NOTHING subsequent to that so that subjects are FREE to respond in a manner they see fit.  The responding here is actually that of EXPRESSING
himself so that what he is himself gets a textual manifestation. In Hermeneutic    Sciences, we do not obtain
data on the basis experimentation which are always manipulations of the subjects  to test whether  a particular hypothesis the experimenter has in mind, holds or not.

The focus on analyzing   expressions as such also means there are NO INSTRUMENTS  in the hermeneutic sciences and hence concerns as to whether a particular instrument is reliable or not, RELIABILTY being here something measurable. It  is  understood that MAN IS NOT THE MEASURE of everything and  hence acknowledging the possibility of TRUTHS outside and above instrumental interventions. In Hermeneutic Sciences we investigate only TEXTS and they
are RELIABLE only when they are obtained as spontaneous productions of the subjects,  expressions  emerging  out of the subjects themselves and from within without being subjected to any manipulations. The personality of the investigator must not be present either directly or indirectly in a manner that would affect the productive or expressive
processes.

3.The Notion of VALIDITY

Having clarified the notion of RELIABILITY thus now we have to attend to the important notion of   VALIDITY.  Certainly the TEXT in relation to the way it is obtained is irrelevant to the notion of validity. For validity pertains to JUDGEMENT and hence to the notion of TRUTH.
The attitude of standing detached in the analysis of TEXTS is also relevant here for it is within
this attidute that TRUTHS can be sighted.

Now every TEXT, because it points to something beyond and above itself,  has DUAL STRUCTURE, the Surface Structure (S.S) and Deep Structure (D.S ) .  A preunderstanding of a text enables only a partial understanding of it. It simultaneously points to a subjective condition of being IGNORANT pertaining to the meaning of the text as a whole. In other words  while we have only a partial understanding of a text, there is no translucency but rather an opacity in the
relationship between the investigator and the text. The subjectivity of the investigator is EXPOSED as ignorant and hence necessitating the exercise of   interpretive maneuvers to destroy it.  When a person notes  certain  features of the S.S and and remains ignorant of them, he seeks to locate some elements in the D.S that are causally related to them. Since the causal presence comes along with simultaneity, the causation is not physical but rather AGENTIVE.
The D.S elements agentively determine the observable features of the S.S. and when a person successfully locates these agentive causes, he UNDERSTANDS the text.  Such an understanding when gets articulated generates a text about a text for which reason we call it a METATEXT (  The Tamil linguists call it CeyyuL).   Since there is the
possibility of making mistakes, of being in error and so forth, the question of the VALIDITY and the TRUTH of such
claims emerge here.  The interpretation here is in fact  ontopretations, a going beyond the surface features  and reaching  the deep structure elements that in fact constitute them.  The gaze goes beyond the surface and reaches the hidden, the concealed but which are in the texts themselves, in situ.  And when the right D.S. structure is sighted then it can also be SEEN by others. This possibility of making others see what one succeeds in seeing ensures that what is seen is objectively there in the TEXT itself and not simply a construction an imagination, a subjective fancy and what not.

Now since seeing what are there though concealed somewhat constitutes seeing TRUTH it follows that what is seen thus also VALID.
 

Reference

Loganathan,K. Metaphysica Universalis of Meykandar  (Available in the
Dravidian Philosophy Campus
under classical texts)
 



ENTRY 5

Kandiah Jey, 2LS-PD, NWW" <kandiahj@crosskeys.com>
 

Dear Rasheed,

> universe Allah has created, to see His laws and the details in His
> creation. Scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, Keppler,
> Galileo, Cuvier (the father of paleontology), Linnaeus (the pioneer of
> botany and zoology) and Isaac Newton all studied science by faith. They
> believed in the existence of Allah and that the whole universe came into
> existence by His creation. Considered to be the biggest genius of our
> age,
> Einstein was another devout scientist who believed in Allah.
>

You claim many people in the past believed in Allah. Do you mean the God
or Allah?
I think the word Allah is the term for God in Arabic. And also, I assume
the term Allah for the God is used by people who follow Islam. I never
knew that the people who have been listed by you here followed Islam.
So, I doubt that Einstein and others believed in Allah. Correct me if I
am wrong.

Thanks,
With regards,
Jeya.



ENTRY 6

: "K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>
 

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ENTRY 7
 

"Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>
 

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ENTRY 8

"K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>
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±É측¸ §¿Ãõ ´Ð츢 ¿£í¸û ¾ó¾ À¾¢ø¸ÙìÌ ¿ýÈ¢.
¯í¸Ç¢ý ͧÁÕ ¬Ã¡öìÌ ±ý Å¡úòÐì¸û.
 


ENTRY 9

"Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>
 

¾õÀ ¢Í¨ÄÁ¡ÛìÌ,
Åñ½ì¸í¸Ùõ Å¡úòÐì¸Ùõ. ¯ý ¸Ê¾ò¨¾ô ÀÊîºÐõ ÁÉÍ «ôÀʧ ÌÇ¢÷óÐ §À¡îÍ ¾õÀ¢.
«¾É¡§Ä, ¯ÉìÌ ¿¢¨ÈÂ, «Ð×õ ­ÍÄ¡ò¨¾ô Àò¾¢ , ¦º¡øÄÛõÛ ¬¨ºÔõ ÅóÐÊîÍ. ­ÍÄ¡õ ÐÈÅ¢¨É
ÅüÒÚòòÅ¢ø¨Ä «ôÀðËýÛ ¦º¡øÈ. µ÷ Ũ¸Â¢ø ¯ñ¨Á¾¡ý. ²ý «ôÀËýÛ §¸ûÅ¢ §¸ð¸Ûõ. ¿À¢ºø
«Å÷¸û ¸¨¼º¢ ¸¡Äõ ŨâÖõ ­øÄÈò¾¢§Ä§Â ­Õó¾Å÷. «ôÀÊ ­Õó¾¡Öõ ­¨È¾Ã¢ºÉõ ¦ÀüÈÅ÷.
±ÉìÌ µ÷ ¿ñÀ÷ ¦º¡ýÉ¡÷. ¡§Ã¡ ´ÕÅ÷ «Å¨Ã «Ï¸¢ «Åâ¼õ; ¿£í¸ ¾¡ý ­¨ÈÅ¨É §¿Ã¡¸
¾Ã¢º¢ì¸¢Ã£í¸§Ç, «Åý ¦º¡åÀõ ±ýÉ ? «ôÀËýÛ §¸ð¸, ¿À¢…ø «Å÷¸û, ­¨ÈÅý ¾ý¨É
´Ç¢ÅÊÅ¢ø  Á¨ÈòÐì ¦¸¡û¸¢È¡ý  «ôÀËýÛ ¦º¡ýɡáõ. ÓÍÄ¢õ «È¢»÷¸Ç¢¼õ §¸ðÎ ­Ð
¯ñ¨Á¡ «ø¨Ä¡ ±ýÚ Å¢º¡Ã¢òÐ ÒâóÐì ¦¸¡û. ¯Ä¸òÐ §ÁÄ¡É »¡É¢¸û «¨ÉÅÕõ ­ôÀÊò¾¡ý
­¨ÈÅ¨É ¾Ã¢º¢òÐ ¯ûÇÉ÷. ͧÁÕ ­Ä츢Âò¾¢§Ä, ­ôÀ ¿¡ý ¬öóÑ ÅÕÅÐ, «¾¢§Ä Ó¾øÅâ§Â
­ôÀÊò¾¡ý ¦¾¡¼íÌÐ:" ¿¢ý ¦Áö º÷Å, ´û ¦¾ûÇ¢Â".  ¿õÁ ÅûÇÄ¡÷ ܼ "«Õð¦ÀÕ狀¡¾¢¢"
«ôÀËýÛ  ¾¡§É ­¨ÈÅÉ¢ ŢǢ츢ýÈ¡÷? ¿¡Ûõ ¾¢ÕìÕÌáý, †Ëòиû §À¡ýÈÅü¨È
§¿Ãí¸¢¨¼ìÌõ §À¡Ð ÀÊôÀÐñÎ.   º¢Åý ±ýÚ ¿¡ý ¦¾¡Øõ «§¾ ­¨ÈÅý ¯Ä¸¢ø §ÅÚ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø
±ôÀÊ ±ôÀÊ ±øÄ¡õ ¦ÅÇ¢ôÀðÎ ¾¨É¸¡ðÊ «ÕÇ¢ÔûÇ¡ý ±ýÚ «Å¨Éô ÒâóÐ ¦¸¡ûÇò¾¡ý
­Ð¦ÅøÄ¡õ. ¦¾ýɡΨ¼Â º¢Åý ±ýÉ¡ð¼Å÷ìÌõ ­¨ÈÅý. ­ÍÄ¡Á¢Âô ¦Àâ¡÷¸Ç¢ø ±ÉìÌ
«øƒ¢Ä¡É¢ ­Á¡õ ¸…¡Ä¢ ±ýÀÅ÷¸§Ç¡Î ÝÀ¢ ¦Àâ¡÷¸Ç¡¸¢Â ÕÁ¢ ÌÉ¡Å¢ ¬¸¢§Â¡÷¸¨ÇÔõ
À¢ÊìÌõ.  ÌÉ¡Å¢, ƒ¢Ä¡É¢ ¬¸¢§Â¡÷¸ÇÐ áø ¬í¸¢Ä ¦Á¡Æ¢¦ÀÂ÷ôÀ¢ø Faith and Practice
of Islam  ±ýÈ  ¾¨ÄôÀ¢Öõ À¢È ¾¨ÄôÀ¢Öõ À¢ÃÍÃõ ¬¸¢ ­Õ츢ýÈÐ. ¸¢¨¼ìÌÁ¢¼õ: S.
Abdul Majeed & Co, 2210 Malayan Mansion, Lalan Masjid India, 50100 Kuala
Lumpur , Malaysia.

­¨¼§Âò ¾õÀ¢, ¿£¾¡ý ¾¢Õ¦¿È¢ò ¦¾Ç¢¨ÅÔõ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÃÄ¡Ú §À¡ýÈÅü¨ÈÔõ
ÀÊì¸ô§À¡§È. «¾É¡§Ä ¯ÉìÌõ Áò¾Åí¸ÙìÌõ, ­ó¾ ¾¢Õ¦¿È¢ò¦¾Ç¢Å¢§Ä ±ÉìÌ À¢Êîº µ÷ º¢Ú
À̾¢¨Â ­ì¸Ê¾ò§¾¡Î ¾÷§Ãý. ÀÊîÍô À¡Õ. À¢ÈÌ ¯ÉìÌ Å¢Ã¢Å¡ ±ØЧÈý. §¿Ãí¸¢¨¼ôÀо¡ý
̾¢¨Ãì ¦¸¡õÀ¡Â¢ÕìÌ.

¸£§Æ ¯ûÇÐ ÓÃÍ «ïºø ±Øò¾¢ø §À¡¼ôÀð¼Ð. ¿õÁ ¸½¢É¢ ÅøÖ¿÷¸û¾¡ý Á¢ý¦ÉØò¨¾
Á¡ò¾¢ì¸¢ð§¼ Å÷Ã¡í¸§Ç. ±ôÀ ¯ÕôÀÊÂ¡É µ÷ ÓÊÅ¢üÌ ÅÕÅ¡í¸ýÛ ¦¾Ã¢Â¨Ä. «ÐŨÃìÌõ
­ôÀÊôÀð¼ º¢ÃÁí¸û ¿ÁìÌ ­ÕìÌõ. ¦À¡ÚòÐì¸Ûõ.

«ñ½ý ¸¢. §Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý
 

1.3 —º‘Ϲ±Æ …´±è(Please convert to Murasu anjal)

    3.1) ƒï ƒ¹¸–€Ò íì —°ä°í —º‘Ϲ±Æ …´±è Ƒ—°ïò Ø㙐×Å.
    ƒ€ÒÀ€é‘—Æî Ž¥¿º×í€é —°äב™ŽÉÅ —א ŸÏ™À‘ ‚þ× ê¿º‘þ×
    —œ‘ÖÓÆ×í€é ت¥Ò‘³ ±éòº¥ ØÍ´³ ØÍ´³ ØÍÚ€Ì —œË׳Å;
    —×俺ª¥€×€ã™ —‘¯¨ °ò×Þ —×俺¥‘³ ƒòñÅ ½€°¹þ° Ž¥™Å
    —º‘π㠁â¹³ ‡¨´³ þÀ헍‘«Ñ¹³ —°èäÆ êØò —º‘Ï㑙Ž âڀÌ
    —œË׳Å, ºíºÒ €Ò´³€é€ã Ø͙Å ƒ¹¸–Óò Ò ³€é€ã™ ¯¨
    ×í€é ƒòñÅ ¸®Ž ‚˹³ °ï´°ï —ºÏ¹³€éã‘ ×ãÑ´³ ×Þ¸–Öè ºÒ
    —œË׳Å, ŠÏ½€¥ Š´³Å ŠÏ½€¥ ŠÜב³Å ´þ°‘¨ ½³€ÀƑ¿ ºÒ —œË³ œ‘ѽ
    ¸–Öè ºÒ ƒÆíì׳Šƒ³þº‘òé€×ÉÅ —º‘Ϲ±Æ …´±ã‘Å.

    3.2) ´þ°‘¨, ƒ±Ö €éè ƒÏ¿»ò ×í€é™ ¯¨ —א¯—¥à¹³, ¯¦´³
    Àì´³ ƒòñÅ ‚ÝÅ —œòì ƒ¹¸–Óò —œÖב™Ž€î °Ñ™Å Ùì€¥Æ ‡±Ñ ¸–Ö
    —œË׳Š—º‘Ϲ³×þ°.

    3.2.1) º‘ÌźÍÆ ª¦Ö êÚ ™¯¦Ï™, °€î Þ™Å Ù쀥Ƒïíþ
    ×£‘îÅ ´±™Å. ‡Öґ ¦€À´°î´±ïòìÅ Ýòé‘ñ™þ
    ¦€ÀƑ—°‘òìÁґ™ þ‘À‘ïò þº‘°€î ÃíêÕÅ ½Å, ×£‘îÅ ´±™Å.
    ƒ°î‘Ö êØ€î ‚™Ž ‹Ñ —µêÇÖ —œÕ´³Å º‘ÌźÍƛè, º¯º‘ª¨ ˜ìè,
    À°¢œ‘ѽè, ºÝ™×ݙ›è, —À‘Þ¿ºíìè ‡î¿þº‘òé ‡Öґ ºí왍€ãÉÅ
    ³€¥™þׯ¨Å. Ü×‘ì ³€¥™‘° ì€À ƒ¹¸–í …¯—¥ïò, °€î™ ¯¨
    ¯¦´³ ‡±Ñ ¸–Ö —œË׳ —º‘Ϲ³×þ° ƑÅ.

    3.3) ƒÜ×‘ì ‡±Ñ™´ ³¬Æ‘ ¦€Àª ƒ¹¸–Ò‘Ö ‚׳ ŠòìÁրÒ. ‡±Ñ´³
    ‡±Ñ´³ þº‘ͪ¨ æØÖ ‡±Ñ™þ× Ã¦Æ‘³ ‡Üבì ÃÆòìÅ ‡òéþ×‘Ñ ¶€ÒÇÖ
    Ƒ³ ¶íŽòéþ°‘ ³þ× —ÀËƑŽòé³.

    3.4) ‡´°€Æ ƒ¨™¯è ×¹³íé þº‘±ÕÅ, ƒ¹¸–€ÒÉÅ ‡¹¸–€ÒÉÅ Þ´³
    Þ´³ °í þÀÖ —œÖÒ ÃÆÕבñ™þ Ƒ¯¨Å Ƒ̑ÕÅ Þ™ æƑ°
    …ì±ã‘ŽÆ —ÀËè ´±™Å. ƒÜבé‘î Ù쀥Æ, °ì¯€À ¶€é¹°
    ŠÏ×ñ™þ ×£‘îÅ ´±™Å ‡òì«Ñ.

    3.5) ƒï þ×°Å Š±ñÅ Ø㛐 ¸–íºÒ íŽñÅ, †±ÆÅ °Ï׳ …ÒŽÆÒêþ×
    ‡òº°‘ÕÅ, ƒÜבÃÅ …ÒŽÆÖ ×‘â™€ÇÓϹ³ Š³›Ž¢ —œÖґ³ ºª¥à¹±
    ñºØ´³ —º‘³×‘™ ¯¨ »é ‚ݤ —œòì ƒ€éÆÏäò ³€«—Æ‘¨ …ҍ´³
    ºÖþ×ì ¶â¢€ã ¶ì´³Å ±Ï؀ãƑ¥Ö€ãÉÅ, ×íêò Äқã‘ŽÆ
    ƹ±Ì›€ãÉÅ, À¹±Ì›€ãÉÅ »é º¤œŽÏ´±Æ›€ãÉÅ ¯¨Å °íþÀÖ
    —œòì ×£‘îÅ ƒ´°ò€ÀƳ ‡òì —º‘³¿º¥ …«Ñ¹³Å ‡à°¿ºª¥³ ‚°Ò‘Ö,
    …ÒŽÆÒêØ€î Š³™‘³ ‡è㑳 ºª¥ê°ÕÅ þׯ¦Æþ° ‡ò. ƒ›
    °Ï´þ°ÑØ€î €ÀÆÀ‘™ —‘¯¥ ‚ÀÚãØÆÖ ‚ËÚ´³€é ÁÚÅ þׯ¦Æ Šòì
    ‡î ê.

    3.6) ‚Çò …ÒŽÆÒêþ× êÚ »é—×ÖґŠê×ÖÒ ‡ñÅ …ҍ‘Æ° À¥€À€ÆÉÅ
    €ã°Ö þׯ¨Å. ƒ€éÆÏè ‡›þ ƒª¨¢ —œÖŽòéþ°‘ ‚›þ ±é¹°Úã´þ°‘¨
    ³¬¹³ —œÒÖþׯ¨Å. Ü×‘ì —œÕÅþº‘þ° ƒ¹¸–Óò …¯€Àè Ø㛐Å.

    3.7) ƒ€éÆϪ ³€«Çòê ƒÜבÀ´€°¿ ½Í¹³—‘è׳Å, ‡à°¿º¥™ ˜¦Æ
    ‡¯¬Ò¥›‘ ‚À›æè °‘—î‘òì ‡à°ÕŠæƑ³ ‡òº°‘Ö, Ƒ¯¨Å
    ƒ€éÆÏè ×ãѹþ°‘›Å ¡ÝÓþÒþÆ ¶òì ƒ°€î™ í þׯ¨Å. ±Ï™þ‘ÇÖ
    ×Þº‘¨ ƒ°í Á þ°€×Æ‘î Šò—éî …«Ñ. › ºÇ֎òé €î´³Å
    ½Ì‘«—À‘Þ´±éò —×俺¨°í´ ³€«þº‘Žòé€×ƑÅ.

    3.8) Š´° ¹°€îƑãÑè ±Ì¯¨ àב™ ˜¦ ƒ¹¸–€Ò íì °ò —º‘Ï€ã
    —ÀËƑ™ ¯¨—‘ã ºÒ×‘ì ¹°€î€ã 虎 —°äڍ€ã Å½´°Ö
    £‘̍‘œ´€° …«Ì ×Þþ‘ÕÅ.

    3.9) ƒ°€î —œÜþ× —œËÆ, ¦¿º€¥Æ‘î ¹°€î¢ Ÿ°¹±ÌÃÅ þ°€× ‡òéê.
    ƒ³ Š¨™¿ºª¥ ƒ¥›äÖ ƒ¹¸–Óò …¯€Àè ½ÍÆב̑.



ENTRY 10

"Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>
 

¾õÀ¢ ͨÄÁ¡ý,
¦¸¡ïºõ §¿Ãí¸¢¼îÍÐ. Å£ðÎìÌô §À¡¸×õ ºó¾üÀõ. «¾É¡¦Ä º¢Ä áü¸¨Ç  ¨¸§Â¡¼ì ¦¸¡ñÎ
ÅóÐ º¢Ä Å¢ºÂí¸¨Ç Å¢Çì¸Ä¡õ «ôÀ¢ËýÛ ¿¢¨É츢§Èý. ¿£ §º¡ÉÐ ¸£§Æ:
 

<¿£í¸ ¦º¡øÈÁ¡¾¢Ã¢ »¡Éõ ÅóÐ, ­Ð ­É¢§Á §Åñ¼¡õÛ à츢 ±È¢ÂÓÊ¡¾
«ÇÅ¢üÌ §¾¡ñ¼ò §¾¡ñ¼ 'Ì÷-¬É¢ø'Å¢ºÂí¸û ÅóÐ츢𧼠­ÕìÌõ§À¡Ð,
«ÐÄ ÁÉõ ÓØ¿¢¨ÈŨ¼Â¡Á, «ûÇ¢ôÀÕ¸§ÅñÊÂÐ ­É¢Ôõ À¡ì¸¢Â¢Õì¸,
±øÄ¡õ º¢ÅÁÂõÛ (¯í¸û À¡¨„¢§Ä§Â) §Áø¿¢¨ÄìÌô §À¡¸ÓÊÂÄ¢§Â ?
±í¸ÙìÌ ´Õ §Å¨Ç (¯í¸û À¡¨„¢ø) ÀìÌÅõ ÅÃÅ¢ø¨Äô §À¡Öõ...!>

<¿¢ü¸, ±ý¨Éô ¦À¡Õò¾ÁðÊø ¿¡ý ÑÉ¢ôÒø §Áöó¾Åý¾¡ý, ¬É¡ø,
ÁüÈ Á¾í¸¨Çô§À¡Ä§Å ­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢Öõ ¸¼ó¾ ÀÄáüÈ¡ñθǢø, ÀÄ »¡É¢¸û
Å¡úó¾¢Õ츢ȡ÷¸û. (¿£í¸û «È¢Å£÷¸û) «¾¢ø ´ÕÅ÷ܼ ¿£í¸û ¦º¡ø¸¢ÈÁ¡¾¢Ã¢,
'Ì÷-¬¨É' ÐÈóÐÅ¢ðÎ ´Õ »¡Éò¨¾ «¨¼ÂÅ¢ø¨Ä. ­ŠÄ¡¨Áô ¦À¡Õò¾ÁðÊø 'Ì÷-¬¨É
´Ð츢¨ÅòÐÅ¢ðÎ ´Õ »¡Éõ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
«ÐÁðÎÁøÄ¡Áø, ­ó¾ ­ŠÄ¡õ ±ý¸¢È ´Õ Á¡÷ì¸ò¾¢ý »¡ÉÌÕÅ¡É,
¿À¢ (… «) «Å÷¸§Ç «Ðô§À¡ýÈ ¿¢¨Ä¨Â «¨¼ÂÅ¢ø¨Ä.
«¾¡ÅÐ, '¿¡ý »¡É¿¢¨Ä ±ý¸¢È §Áø¿¢¨Ä¨Â «¨¼óÐÅ¢ð§¼ý.
±É§Å ±ÉìÌ ­É¢ 'Ì÷-¬ý' §¾¨Å¢ø¨Ä ±É ¦º¡ýɾ¡¸ ÅÃÄ¡Ú ­ø¨Ä. ­¨ÈŽì¸ò¨¾Ôõ,
'Ì÷-¬ý' µÐ¾¨ÄÔõ Å¢ðÎÅ¢¼¡¾£÷¸û ±ýÀ¨¾
±í¸ÙìÌ «Øò¾Á¡¸§Å ¦º¡øĢŢðÎô §À¡Â¢Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
±É§Å ­ŠÄ¡Á¢ø ¿£í¸û ¦º¡ø¸¢ÈÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É, 'ÐÈò¾ø' »¡É¿¢¨Ä ­ø¨Ä.
«¾üÌ «ÛÁ¾¢Ôõ ­ø¨Ä.>

        ­ó¾ ¸ÕòÐì¸û ±ó¾ «ÇÅ¢üÌ ­ÍÄ¡õ Àò¾¢ ¯ñ¨Á ±ýÀ¾¢§Ä ±É째¡÷ ³ÂôÀ¡Î. ²ýÉ¡
­ÍÄò¾¢§Ä ÐÈÅÃÓõ ­ÕìÌ, Ü÷¾ÄÈì §¸¡ðÀ¡Îõ ­ÕìÌ. ºÃ¢ ÓýÒ ­ø§ÄýÛ ¦º¡ýÉÅí¸ ­ôÀ
­ÕìÌýÛ ¦º¡øÖÃ£í¸§Ç , ÓÃñÀ¡Î ­ø¨Ä¡ «ôÀËýÛ ¿£ ¿¢îºÂÁ¡ì §¸ð¨À. ¬¸ ºüÚ Å¢Çì¸Á¡¸
¦º¡ø§Ã§É. ­ÍÄ¡ò¨¾ ±Îòи¢ð¼¡ «Ãº ­ÍÄ¡õ, »¡É ­ÍÄ¡õ «ôÀËýÛ ­ÃñΠŨ¸Â¡ô À¢Ã¢îÍô
À¡ì¸Ûõ. »¡É ­ÍÄ¡õ¾¡ý ÍÀ¢ ­ÍÄ¡õ. ­Ð§Ä ¿¡ý ¦º¡ýÉ ­ÃñÎõ ­ÕìÌ, ¬É¡ø ÓüÈ¡¸ ÅÇáÁ
ÝìÌÁ ÅÊÅ¢§Ä§Â ¸¢¼ìÌÐ. §ÁÖõ «Ãº ­ÍÄ¡õ ­ó¾ »¡É ­ÍÄ¡¨Á ÅÇà ŢΞ¢ø¨Ä. ­Ð
±ôÀÊýÉ¡, ¨ºÅ ºÁÂò¾¢§Ä " ´ý§È ÌÄõ , ´ÕŧÉò§¾Åý" ±ýÈ §¸¡ðÀ¡Îõ «¾§É¡Î ÅÕõ
«¾¢Å÷½¡Íà ¾÷ÁÓõ ­ÕìÌ. ¬É¡  Ó¾øÄ ­¾¨É º¢¾õÀà ­Ã¸…¢Âõ ¬ì¸¢É¡í¸, À¢ÈÌ Ò¨¾îÍ
¦¸¡ý§É §À¡ðÎð¼¡í¸. ¿£ º¢¾õÀÃí §¸¡Â¢ÖìÌ §À¡§ÉýÉ¡, À¢î¨ºì¸¡Ã÷¸¨Ç ܼ º¡¾¢
«ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢ø À¢Ã¢îÍ ÅÕôÀ¨¾ À¡÷ì¸Ä¡õ. À¢Ã¡Á½ À¢î¨ºì¸¡Ã÷¸ðÌ ¯û§Ç ­¼õ,
«øÄ¡¾Åü¸ðÌ ¦ÅÇ¢§Â. ±ôÀÊ ­ÕìÌ ¨ºÅò¾¢ý «¾¢Å÷½¡Íà ¾÷Áõ?

­Ðô§À¡Äò¾¡ý ¾õÀ¢ ­ÍÄ¡¾¢ø§Ä ÐÈ×õ, Ü÷¾ÄÈì §¸¡ðÀ¡Îõ. ºÃ¢ º¡ýÚ §ÅÏÁ¡ ­ø¨Ä¡?
­ô¦À¡ ¾÷§Ãý. º¢ó¾¢îÍô À¡Õ. Ó¾ø¦Ä ÌÉ¡Å¢ (¦À÷º¢Â¡ 13¬õ áüÈ¡ñÎ) «Å÷¸Ç¢ý "The
rising places of Faith" ±ýÈ áÄ¢ÕóÐ µ÷ À¡ò¾¢
:" Know- may God make you qualified for His wonderoua mysteries and give you
success in taking illumination from his marvalous lights-- that the human
being possesses stages, and in each  stage there are specific perceptions,
for the perceptions of the coming stage are absent from the present stage.
For example, the embryo has specific perceptions, and in relation to its
perceptions the suckling infant's objects are "unseen". Hence the stage of
the suckling infant is beyond that of the embryo. Likewise, the stage of the
child who can discriminate is related to that of the suckling infant in the
same way that the stage of the suckling infant is related to that of the
embryo. Then, the stage of the person in control of reason is beyond that of
discriminating child, the stage of being God's friend is beyond that reason,
the stage of prophecy is beyond that odf being a friend, and above everyone
who has knowledge is one who knows."

 ­Ð¾¡ý ¾õÀ¢ ¨ºÅÓí ÜÚ¸¢ýÈ Ü÷¾ÄÈõ. Ò¨¾Â¡¸, ÝìÌÁÁ¡¸ ­ÕôÀÐ àÄÁ¡¸¢¼  ÀìÌÅ
Ó¾¢÷. ­ó¾ Ó¾¢÷¢ý ¸¨¼º¢ ¿¢¨Ä ţΧÀÚ, Íò¾ §Á¡Éõ. Å¡ìÌ Á¡É¡¾£¾
§¸¡ºÃ¡Á¡¸¢Â ­¨ÈŧɡΠ§ÅÈÈ ¿¢üÀÐ. ­Ð ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ Å¡ìÌ. ¬É¡ø ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä «¾¡ÅÐ «Ãº
­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä ­Ð ÅüÒÚò¾ôÀ¼¡§Á ÅÇ÷ì¸ôÀ¼¡§Á §À¡Â¢ÎîÍýÛ ¿¢¨É¸¢ý§Èý. »¡É ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä
«¾ý ÓÊÀ¡É ±ø¨ÄìÌô ¦À¡¸§ÄýÛ ¦¾Ã¢ÔÐ.

 ÐÈ×õ ­ÕìÌ ¬É¡ø ÅüÒÚò¾ôÀ¼¡§Á §À¡îÍ. ¸£§Æ ÅÕõ ̽íÌÊ ÁŠò¾¡ý º¡¸¢Ò À¡¼¨Äô À¡§Ãý.

                ³§Â¡ ¦Å¨Éô§À¡Öõ Á¡ô¦ÀÕõ À¡Å¢ ­ù
                Ÿ¢Äò¾¢ø ±íÌõ ­¨Ä§Â
                «¿¢Â¡Âõ «¿¢Â¡Âõ ±ý ¦ÀÕõ À¡¾¸ÁÐ
                ¬÷ À¡ø ±ÎòÐ µÐ§Åý
                ¨ÁÂ¡É ¸ñ½¢Â÷ ŨÄìÌû «¸ôÀð¼
                Á¡À¡Å¢ ¾£À¡Å¢     ¡ý
                ÁÌâÒ ÍÒ¸¡É¢Â¡É ¯¨Á ¿¡¼¡¾
                Á¼¨Á Ìʦ¸¡ñ¼ À¡Å¢
                ¦À¡öÂ¡É Å¡úž¨É ¦Áö¡¸ ¿õÀ¢Ôý
                ¦À¡ýÉÊ ÁÈó¾ À¡Å¢
                ¨¿Ô§Á¡÷ ¦À¡öÔĸý ¬¸¢§Â ÔÁ¾Ê¨Á
                ¿¡Â¢Ûí ¸¨¼Â¡Å§É¡
                ¿ü̽í Ìʦ¸¡ñ¼ À¡òЄ¡ Å¡ÉÌÕ
                ¿¡¾ý Ó¸¢Â¢ò¾£§É!

­ôÀÊ ­ÅÕõ ­ýÛõ ÀÄ ¾Á¢ú ÓÍÄ¢õ¸Ùõ ÐÈÅÈò¨¾ô ÀüÈ¢ Á¢¸ º¢ÈôÀ¡¸ À¡ÊÔûÇÉ÷.  ¨ºÅò¾¢ý
¾¡ì¸õ ­ÕìÌ. ̽íÌÊ¡÷ ºÁ¡¾£¾õ À¡Ê  ¾¡ÔÁ¡ÉŨà ¦ÀâÐõ §À¡üÈ¢ÂÅ÷. ­ÍÄ¡Á¢Âá¸
­ÕóÐ ¦¸¡ñ§¼ «¾¨Éì ¸¼ó¾Å÷. ­É¢  ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢ø ÐÈ× ­ø¨Ä¡? ±ýÉ ¿¢¨É츢§È?

«ñ½ý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý


ENTRY 11

"K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>
 

«ýÀ¢üÌ⠧ġ¸¿¡¾ý «ñ½ý «Å÷¸ÙìÌ Å½ì¸õ !
¸£§Æ ±ÉìÌò ¦¾Ã¢ó¾ Å¢Çì¸í¸û.

§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý «ñ½ý ±Ø¾¢ÂÐ.
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­ó¾ ¸ÕòÐì¸û ±ó¾ «ÇÅ¢üÌ ­ÍÄ¡õ Àò¾¢ ¯ñ¨Á ±ýÀ¾¢§Ä ±É째¡÷ ³ÂôÀ¡Î. ²ýÉ¡
­ÍÄò¾¢§Ä ÐÈÅÃÓõ ­ÕìÌ, Ü÷¾ÄÈì §¸¡ðÀ¡Îõ ­ÕìÌ. ºÃ¢ ÓýÒ ­ø§ÄýÛ ¦º¡ýÉÅí¸ ­ôÀ
­ÕìÌýÛ ¦º¡øÖÃ£í¸§Ç , ÓÃñÀ¡Î ­ø¨Ä¡ «ôÀËýÛ ¿£ ¿¢îºÂÁ¡ì §¸ð¨À. ¬¸ ºüÚ
Å¢Çì¸Á¡¸
¦º¡ø§Ã§É. ­ÍÄ¡ò¨¾ ±Îòи¢ð¼¡ «Ãº ­ÍÄ¡õ, »¡É ­ÍÄ¡õ «ôÀËýÛ ­ÃñΠŨ¸Â¡ô
À¢Ã¢îÍô À¡ì¸Ûõ. »¡É ­ÍÄ¡õ¾¡ý ÍÀ¢ ­ÍÄ¡õ. ­Ð§Ä ¿¡ý ¦º¡ýÉ ­ÃñÎõ ­ÕìÌ, ¬É¡ø
ÓüÈ¡¸ ÅÇáÁ ÝìÌÁ ÅÊÅ¢§Ä§Â ¸¢¼ìÌÐ. §ÁÖõ «Ãº ­ÍÄ¡õ ­ó¾ »¡É ­ÍÄ¡¨Á ÅÇÃ
ŢΞ¢ø¨Ä. ­Ð
±ôÀÊýÉ¡, ¨ºÅ ºÁÂò¾¢§Ä " ´ý§È ÌÄõ , ´ÕŧÉò§¾Åý" ±ýÈ §¸¡ðÀ¡Îõ «¾§É¡Î ÅÕõ
«¾¢Å÷½¡Íà ¾÷ÁÓõ ­ÕìÌ. ¬É¡  Ó¾øÄ ­¾¨É º¢¾õÀà ­Ã¸…¢Âõ ¬ì¸¢É¡í¸, À¢ÈÌ Ò¨¾îÍ
¦¸¡ý§É §À¡ðÎð¼¡í¸. ¿£ º¢¾õÀÃí §¸¡Â¢ÖìÌ §À¡§ÉýÉ¡, À¢î¨ºì¸¡Ã÷¸¨Ç ܼ º¡¾¢
«ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢ø À¢Ã¢îÍ ÅÕôÀ¨¾ À¡÷ì¸Ä¡õ. À¢Ã¡Á½ À¢î¨ºì¸¡Ã÷¸ðÌ ¯û§Ç ­¼õ,
«øÄ¡¾Åü¸ðÌ ¦ÅÇ¢§Â. ±ôÀÊ ­ÕìÌ ¨ºÅò¾¢ý «¾¢Å÷½¡Íà ¾÷Áõ?
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«ñ§½, ±ÉìÌ ºÃ¢Â¡É º¢¾õÀà ­Ã¸º¢Âõ ¦¾Ã¢Â¡Ð. «¨¾ôÀüÈ¢ ÀħÀÕ츢ð¼ ÀÄÅ¢¾Á¡É
¸¨¾¸û §¸ðÊÕ째ý. ­ó¾ ­¨½ÂòÐÄ ¯ûÇ ´Õ ¦ÀâÂÅ÷,
´Õ ¿À¢§Â¡Î ¾Á¢Æ¸ò¾¢üÌ ¯ûÇ ¦¾¡¼÷¨ÀôÀüȢ ŢÀÃõ ±Ø¾È¾¡ ¦º¡ýÉ¡í¸.
§Å¨Ä ÀÙÅ¡Ä ­ÐŨà «Åí¸Ç¡Ä ±Ø¾ÓÊÂÄýÛ ¿¢¨Éì̧Èý.
«ó¾ Å¢ÀÃõ ºÃ¢Â¡ò ¦¾Ã¢ïº¡, º¢¾õÀà øº¢Âò¨¾ôÀüÈ¢ ¿¡ý §¸ð¼ ¸¨¾§Â¡¼
´òÐ ÅÕ¾¡ýÛ À¡÷ì¸Ä¡õ. ¿¡ý º¢¾õÀÃòÐÄ ­ÕóÐ ºÃ¢Â¡ ³ó¾¡ÅÐ ¨ÁøÄ,
ƒÉ½Á¡ÉÅý. «¾É¡Ä ¿¢¨È ¸¨¾ §¸ðÊÕ째ý. «í§¸ÔûÇ º¡¾¢Å¢ò¾¢Â¡ºí¸ûÄ¡õ ¿øÄ¡§Åò
¦¾Ã¢Ôõ.

¿¢ü¸, ­ŠÄ¡òÐÄ «ÃÍ ­ŠÄ¡õ, »¡É ­ŠÄ¡õ ±ýÀÐ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
ÐÈÅÈõ Íò¾Á¡ì ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.­ŠÄ¡õÄ ±ø§Ä¡ÕìÌõ ´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ÅÆ¢¾¡ý.
­ŠÄ¡õÀüȢ »¡Éõ ¯ûÇÅí¸, ­øÄ¡¾Åí¸ýÛ, ӊģõ¸û ­Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
­¾¢ø ¦¾Ã¢ó¾ÅÛìÌõ, ¦¾Ã¢Â¡¾ÅÛìÌõ ´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ­¨ÈÅÆ¢À¡Î¾¡ý.
´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ºð¼¾¢ð¼í¸û¾¡ý. »¡Éõ ÅóÐÅ¢ð¼¡ø ÐÈÅ¢, «øÄÐ »¡É¢.
»¡Éõ ­øÄ¡¾Åý º¡¾¡Ã½Á¡É ¬Ù ±ýÀ¦¾øÄ¡õ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
­ŠÄ¡õÀüÈ¢ ´ñÏõ ¦¾Ã¢Â¡Á ­Õì¸È ӊģõ¸û ´ù¦Å¡Õò¾Ûõ,
§ÁÖõ, §ÁÖõ, ­ŠÄ¡õÀüÈ¢ ¦¾Ã¢óÐ즸¡ûǧÅñÊÂÐ ¸¼¨Á «ùÅǧÅ.

ÀûǢšºø¸ûÄ À¡÷ò¾£í¸ýÉ¡, ÅÕ¼ì¸½ì¸¡É Å¾¡¸¢ Áýõ «¨¼Â¢ÈŨâÄ,
'†ˆÃò'¾¡×õ, «§¾ ºÁÂòÐÄ, ­ŠÄ¡õÀüȢ «È¢¨Å
Å¢º¡ÄÁ¡ì¸¢ì ¦¸¡ñÎ, ±ô§À¡Ð§Á Àì¾¢§Â¡¼ ­ÕìÌÈ «Å÷¸ûܼ,
­ò¾¨É ÅÕ¼Á¡ ­¨Èò¦¾¡ñÎô Òâ󾾡ÄÔõ, ­¨Èŧɡ¼ ´ýÈ¢ô§À¡É
¯½÷§Å¡¼ Å¡ú󾾡ÄÔõ, ¿¡ý »¡É¢Â¡öð§¼ýÛ ¦º¡øÈÐ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
²ýÉ¡ «ó¾ Å¡÷ò¨¾ ­ŠÄ¡òÐÄ ¦ºøÄ¡ÐýÛ «ÅÕìÌò ¦¾Ã¢Ôõ.
«Ð ¯ñ¨ÁÔõ ¸¢¨¼Â¡ÐýÛ «ÅÕìÌò¦¾Ã¢Ôõ.

­ŠÄ¡õÄ ­¨Èŧɡ¼, ´ýÈ¢ô§À¡¸¢È ¯½÷׸Ùõ-Àì¾¢Ôõ «¾¢¸Á¡öð¼¡, «¨¾ ºÓ¾¡Â
¿ñ¨Á¸ÙìÌ §ÅñÊ ¾¢ÕôÀ¢Å¢¼Ïõ¸Èо¡ý ­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ý §¿¡ì¸õ.  «ÐÅøÄ¡Áø ­¨ÈŨÉô Ò¸úóÐ
À¡ðÎôÀ¡Ê츢ðÎ, ¦Àò¾ ¾¡ö, ¾¸ôÀý, Á¨ÉÅ¢, Áì¸¨Ç ±øÄ¡õ, ´Ð츢ò ¾ûÇ¢ðÎ,
´ü¨ÈÁÉ¢¾É¡  ´Ðí¸¢ µÎÀÅÉ¢ý À¢Ã¡÷ò¾¨É¸¨Ç ­¨ÈÅý ²üÚ즸¡ûÇÁ¡ð¼¡ý.

±ý¨Éô¦À¡Õò¾ ÁðÊø ÐÈÅÈõ ±ýÀÐ ´ÕÅ¢¾Á¡É Í¿Äõ. «øÄÐ Å¡ú쨸 º¢ì¸Ä¢ø ­ÕóÐ
¾ôÀ¢òÐ즸¡ûÙõ ´Õ Á¡÷ì¸õ.
 

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  ¸£§Æ ÅÕõ ̽íÌÊ ÁŠò¾¡ý º¡¸¢Ò À¡¼¨Äô À¡§Ãý.

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±í¸Ç¢ý »¡ÉÌÕ ±ýÈ¡ø ¿À¢ (… «) ÁðÎõ¾¡ý. ­ŠÄ¡ò¨¾ô ¦À¡Õò¾ÁðÊø
«Å÷¸ÙìÌô À¢È̾¡ý ±ÅÕõ. «Å÷¸û ¦º¡ýÉÐô§À¡Ä×õ, Å¡úóÐ측ðÊÂЧÀ¡Ä×õ, šƧÅñÎõ
±ýÀо¡ý ӊģÁ¸Ç¢ý §¿¡ì¸Á¡¸
­Õ츧ÅñÎõ. «Å÷¸û ¦º¡øÄ¡¾ ´ý¨È, ¦ºö¡¾ ´ý¨È ӊģõ¸û
¦ºöÂìܼ¡Ð ±ýÀÐõ ¸Î¨ÁÂ¡É Å¢¾¢. ¿¡ý ±ØÐÅÐ ­ŠÄ¡õÀüÈ¢,
ӊģõ¸Ç¢ý ¦º¡ó¾ «À¢ôÀ¢Ã¡Âí¸¨Çì ÌÈ¢òÐ «øÄ. ºð¼õ¦¾Ã¢ó§¾ ºð¼ò¨¾
Á£È¢ ¿¼ì¸¢ýÈ ÓŠÄ£õ¸û ²Ã¡Çõ. ¦¾Ã¢Â¡¾Å÷¸Ùõ ¯ñÎ.
­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ø «È¢Å¢Âø ­Õ츢Ⱦ¡ ? ­ø¨Ä¡ ? ±ý¸¢È Å¡¾ò¾¢Ä¢ÕóÐ ¿¡õ
­ô§À¡Ð, ÐÈÅÈõ ¯ñ¼¡ ? ­ø¨Ä¡ ? ±ý¸¢È º÷¢ø ­Õ츢§È¡õ.
 
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±ýÈ¡Öõ ¿£í¸û ̽íÌÊ ÁŠ¾¡É¢ø À¡¼ø¸¨Ç ÌÈ¢ôÀ¢ðÎ ­ÕôÀ¾¡ø,
«¨¾ôÀüÈ¢Ôõ ±ý ¸Õò¨¾ ­ŠÄ¡Á¢Â «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢§Ä§Â ÜȢŢθ¢§Èý.
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Ó¨†Â¢ò¾£ý §„ì »¡É¢ ±ýÚ ¦º¡øÄôÀÎÅÐñÎ. ­¨ÈÅÉøÄ.
«Å÷¸Ç¢ý ¸¡ÄÊ ¦À¡ýÉÊ ±ýÚõ, ¿¡ý ¯ÁÐ «Ê¨Á ±ýÚõ,
­ó¾ Åâ¸ÙìÌ «÷ò¾õ ÅÕž¡ø, ­¨¾ ±Ø¾¢ÂÐ ±ò¾¨Éô ¦Àâ Á¸¡É¡¸ ­Õó¾¡Öõ,
­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ý «ÊôÀ¨¼ò ¾òÐÅò¾¢üÌ ±¾¢Ã¡ÉÅâ¸Ç¡Ìõ.
ӊģÁ¡ÉÅý «øÄ¡‹ ´ÕŨÉò ¾Å¢Ã, ±ó¾ ´Õ »¡É¢ìÌõ «Ê¨Á¢ø¨Ä.
¿À¢ (… «) «Å÷¸Ç¢ý À¡¾ò¨¾§Â ¦À¡ýÉÊ ±ýÚ ¦º¡øÄ¢ì ¦¸¡ñ¼¾¢ø¨Ä.
¿À¢ (… «) «Å÷¸û Å¡úó¾ ¸¡Äò¾¢ø, ¿À¢ò§¾¡Æ÷¸û ¦ÅÇ¢¿¡Î¸Ç¢ø ¦ºýÚ,
«í§¸ÔûÇ ÁýÉ÷¸Ç¢ý ¸¡ø¸Ç¢ø «íÌûÇÅ÷¸û Å£úóÐ Á⡨¾ ¦ºöÔõ
¸¡ðº¢¨Âì ¸ñÎÅ¢ðÎÅóÐ, "«§¾ô §À¡Ä ¿¡í¸Ùõ ¯í¸û ¸¡Ä¢ø Å¢ØóÐ Á⡨¾ ¦ºöÂÅ¡
±É째ð¸,
"«øÄ¡‹¨Åò¾Å¢Ã ¡ÕìÌõ ¾¨ÄŽí¸ìܼ¡Ð"
±ýÚ ¦º¡øĢŢð¼¡÷¸û. ¬¸, ­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ý ­¨ÈÅÛìÌ ÁðÎõ¾¡ý,
­ŠÄ¡Á¢Âý ¾¨ÄŽíÌÅ¡ý. «õÁ¡×ìÌõ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð, Á¨ÉŢ츢ð¼Â¢ÕóÐ
¸½ÅÛìÌ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð. «¾É¡Ä ±ó¾ »¡É¢¸Ç¢ý ¸¡Öõ ¦À¡üÀ¡¾Á¡¸¡Ð.
¸¨¼º¢Â¡ «ó¾ À¡¼øÄ ¯ûÇÅâ¸ûÄ,
¿ü̽í Ìʦ¸¡ñ¼ À¡òЄ¡ Å¡ÉÌÕ¿¡¾ý Ó¸¢Â¢ò¾£§É! ±ýÚ ­Õ츢ÈÐ.
±í¸Ç¢ý Å¡ÉÌÕ¿¡¾ý Ó¸¢Âò¾£ý §„ì «øÄ.
«Åí¸ «¼í¸¢Â¢ÕìÌÈ ­¼òÐÄô§À¡ö ­¨¾ôÀ¡ÎÉ¡,
'«¼ôÀ¡Å¢ ӊģÁ¡ ­ÕóÐ츢ðÎ, ±ý¨É ­¨ÈÅÉÇ×ìÌ ¯Â÷ò¾¢,
±ý¨ÉÔõ §º÷òÐ À¡Å¢Â¡ì¸¢, ¿£Ôõ À¡Å¢Â¡×È¢§Â¼¡ À¡Å¢ýÛ,
«ó¾ ¬ýÁ¡ ¿õÁÇò¾¡ý ºÀ¢ìÌõ.:-))

«ñ§½, ­ó¾ ̽íÌÊ ÁŠ¾¡ý º¡¸¢Ò ¿øÄ ¸Å¢»Ã¡ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ.
«Ð§ÅÈ Å¢ºÂõ. «Ð측¸ «Å÷ ­ŠÄ¡òÐìÌ Óý¡É ¸Õò¨¾,
±ùÅÇ× «Æ¸¡ À¡ÎÉ¡Öõ «¨¾ ­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ý ºð¼Á¡ ²òÐì¸ÓÊ¡Ð.
«¾É¡Ä, ­ŠÄ¡òÐÄ ±ýÉ ¦º¡øĢ¢ÕìÌ ±ýÀ¨¾ ÁðÎõ À¡÷ô§À¡õ.

«ýÒ¼ý
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 ENTRY 12

"Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>

¾õÀ¢ ͨÄÁ¡ý,
º¢Ä Å¢ºÂí¸¨Ç §¸ûÅ¢¸¨Ç ¯ý º¢ó¾¨ÉìÌ ¨Å츢ý§Èý. ²ýÉ¡  ±É째 º¢Ä ÌÆôÀí¸û. ¿¡Ûõ
±øÄ¡ï ¦¾Ã¢ïºÅý «øÄ ­Õó¾¡Öõ «õ¨ÁÔõ «ôÀÛÁ¡¸ ­¨ÈÅý ¯¾Å ´ù¦Å¡Õ ¿¡Ùõ ÒÐôÒÐ
Å¢ºÂí¸Ç¡¸ ¸òÐ즸¡ñÎ ÅÕ¸¢§Èý. ¸£§Æ ¿£ ¦º¡ýÉÐ.

¿¢ü¸, ­ŠÄ¡òÐÄ «ÃÍ ­ŠÄ¡õ, »¡É ­ŠÄ¡õ ±ýÀÐ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
>ÐÈÅÈõ Íò¾Á¡ì ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.­ŠÄ¡õÄ ±ø§Ä¡ÕìÌõ ´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ÅÆ¢¾¡ý.
>­ŠÄ¡õÀüȢ »¡Éõ ¯ûÇÅí¸, ­øÄ¡¾Åí¸ýÛ, ӊģõ¸û ­Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
>­¾¢ø ¦¾Ã¢ó¾ÅÛìÌõ, ¦¾Ã¢Â¡¾ÅÛìÌõ ´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ­¨ÈÅÆ¢À¡Î¾¡ý.
>´§ÃÁ¡¾¢Ã¢Â¡É ºð¼¾¢ð¼í¸û¾¡ý. »¡Éõ ÅóÐÅ¢ð¼¡ø ÐÈÅ¢, «øÄÐ »¡É¢.
>»¡Éõ ­øÄ¡¾Åý º¡¾¡Ã½Á¡É ¬Ù ±ýÀ¦¾øÄ¡õ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð.
>­ŠÄ¡õÀüÈ¢ ´ñÏõ ¦¾Ã¢Â¡Á ­Õì¸È ӊģõ¸û ´ù¦Å¡Õò¾Ûõ,
>§ÁÖõ, §ÁÖõ, ­ŠÄ¡õÀüÈ¢ ¦¾Ã¢óÐ즸¡ûǧÅñÊÂÐ ¸¼¨Á «ùÅǧÅ.
 

>­ŠÄ¡õÄ ­¨Èŧɡ¼, ´ýÈ¢ô§À¡¸¢È ¯½÷׸Ùõ-Àì¾¢Ôõ «¾¢¸Á¡öð¼¡, «¨¾ ºÓ¾¡Â
>¿ñ¨Á¸ÙìÌ §ÅñÊ ¾¢ÕôÀ¢Å¢¼Ïõ¸Èо¡ý ­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ý §¿¡ì¸õ.  «ÐÅøÄ¡Áø ­¨ÈŨÉô Ò¸úóÐ
>À¡ðÎôÀ¡Ê츢ðÎ, ¦Àò¾ ¾¡ö, ¾¸ôÀý, Á¨ÉÅ¢, Áì¸¨Ç ±øÄ¡õ, ´Ð츢ò ¾ûÇ¢ðÎ,
>´ü¨ÈÁÉ¢¾É¡  ´Ðí¸¢ µÎÀÅÉ¢ý À¢Ã¡÷ò¾¨É¸¨Ç ­¨ÈÅý ²üÚ즸¡ûÇÁ¡ð¼¡ý.

­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ø «È¢Å¢Âø ­Õ츢Ⱦ¡ ? ­ø¨Ä¡ ? ±ý¸¢È Å¡¾ò¾¢Ä¢ÕóÐ ¿¡õ
>­ô§À¡Ð, ÐÈÅÈõ ¯ñ¼¡ ? ­ø¨Ä¡ ? ±ý¸¢È º÷¢ø ­Õ츢§È¡õ.
>
>
 

Ó¾ø§Ä  ÐÈÅÈò¾¢üÌõ áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÖìÌõ ¯ûÇ ¦¾¡¼÷¨À À¡÷ô§À¡õ.  «È¢Å¢ÂøÄ ­ÃñΠŨ¸ýÛ
¦º¡ý§Éý. «¨¾Àò¾¢ ¿¢¨È ¬í¸¢Äò¾¢ø ±Ø¾¢ ­Õ째ý. ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢ø ¸¢¨¼ìÌõ. §ÁÖõ ±øġŨ¸
«È¢Å¢Â¨Ä ±ÎòÐ츢ð¼¡Öõ ­ó¾ ­ÃñΠŨ¸¾¡ý §Á§Ä ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð. ­¾¨É Metaphysica
Univaersalis" «ôÀ¡Ëí¸¢È áÄ¢ý «È¢Ó¸ò¾¢§Ä Å¢Ç츢 ­Õ째ý. ­Ð×õ ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢§Ä
¸¢¨¼ìÌõ.  ­Ð ±í¸û Àø¸¨Ä ¸Æ¸ò¾¢§Ä Ó¨ÉÅ÷ Àð¼ «ÇÅ¢üÌ ÅÇ÷óÐŢ𼠵÷ ШÈ. §ÁÖõ
¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢Âø áĢ «È¢Å¢Â¨Ä ¾ýÛû «¼ì¸ ÓÊ¡Ð. ¬É¡ø áĢ «È¢Å¢Âø ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â
«È¢Å¢Â¨Ä ¾ýÛû «¼ìÌõ.
¬¸ ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä «È¢Å¢Âø ­åìÌ «ôÀËýÉ¡ ­ó¾ ­ÃñΠŨ¸Â¢§Ä ´ýÉ¡ò¾¡ý ­Õì¸ ÓÊÔõ.
¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢Âø Á¢¸ º¢ÈôÀ¡¸ ¦Åû¨ÇÂ÷¸Ç¡ø ÅÇ÷ì¸ôÀðÎ ­ô¦À¡ØÐ ¯Ä¦¸íÌõ ÀÃÅ¢
ÅÕÅÐ. ­¾üÌ ¸ñÊôÀ¡É µ÷ ӨȢÂø ¯ñÎ. «ó¾ ӨȢÂÄ¢üÌ Á£È¢î ¦ºýÈ¡ø, «Ð «È¢Å¢Âø
¬¸¡Ð. Karl Popper ±ýÈ  µ÷ ¾òÐÅ »¡É¢ ¸Õò¾¢ýÀÊ, ­ó¾ ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢ÂÖìÌ
«ÊôÀ¨¼Â¡ÉР ÁÚìÌõ ÀñÒ (the possibility of refutation)  ´ÕÅý ´ýÈ¢¨É µ÷
º¡ò¾¢ÂÁ¡¸ Óý¦Á¡Æ¢Â, «¾¨É  ²ü¸ ÓÊÔÁ¡ ±ýÚ «È¢Â§Å¾¡ý §º¡¾¨É¸û(experiments)
±ý¸¢ýÈ¡÷. §º¡¾¨É¸û «¨ÉòЧÁ ¸½ì¸¢ðÎ «ÇôÀ¾¡Ìõ , (statistical analysis)  ­ùÅ¡Ú
«ÇìÌõ §À¡Ð ¡Р¿¢Ã¡¸Ã¢ì¸ ÅÕ¸¢ýȧ¾¡ «Ð Å£ºôÀÎõ, ¿¢Ã¡¸Ã¢ì¸ šá¾Ð, ¾ü¸¡Ä¢¸Á¡¸
, ¦À¡öÂÄ ±ýÚ ²üÚ¦¸¡ûÇô ÀÎõ.   ¬¸, §º¡¾¢ò¾ø, ¸½ì¸ð¼È¢¾ø, ¿¢Ã¡¸Ã¢ò¾ø ±ýÀÉ
¾¢ÕìÌáɢø  ­øÄ¡¾¾¡ø, «íÌ ÜÈôÀÎÅÐ ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢Âø «øÄ . «ôÀËýÉ¡, «íÌ
ÜÈôÀÎÅÐ áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÄ¡¸ò¾¡ý ­Õì¸ÓÊÔõ.

­ó¾ áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÄ¢ø ÁÉ¢¾¨ÉôÀüȢ ¬öÅ¢ø «È¢ÂÅÕõ µ÷ ¯ñ¨Á ±ýɦÅýÈ¡ø, ÁÉ¢¾ý
ÀÊôÀÊ¡¸  ÀìÌÅò¾¢ø Ó¾¢÷óÐ ÓÊÅ¢ø ¸¡Ä츼ôÒ ¦ºöÐ Íò¾ §Á¡É ¿¢¨Ä «¨¼óÐ, ­¨ÈŧɡÎ
­Ãñ¼È  ¿¢ýÚ º¢Å»¡Éõ àöòÐ Á¸¢úž¡Ìõ.  ÀÊôÀÊ¡¸ ÀìÌÅò¾¢ø ¯Â÷ÅÐ ±ýÀÐ, ¯Ä¸¢ø
¸¡½ì¸¢¼ì¸¢È µ÷ ¯ñ¨Á¡Ìõ. ­Ð§Å Ü÷¾ÄÈò§¾¡Î ´òÐ ÅÕ¸¢È µ÷ ¦¾Ç¢×õ ¬Ìõ. ­í§¸¾¡ý
ÐÈ×õ «¼íÌõ. §Áġɧš÷ ¿¢¨Ä¢ø ¦Áö¡Éò ÐÈ× ¾¡§É ÁÄÕõ. À¢ïº¡¸¢ ¸¡Â¡¸¢ ÀÆÁ¡¸¢
Å¢ØÅР §À¡Ä. ÐÈ× ±øÄ¡÷ ¯ûÇò¾¢§ÄÔõ Ò¨¾óÐ ¸¢¼ì¸¢ýÈ ´ýÚ. «ó¾ ¦À÷º¢Â  ÝÀ¢»¡É¢
ÌÉ¡«Å¢ ¦º¡ýÉÐ §À¡Ä, ÝìÌÁÁ¡¸ ­ÕóÐ À¢ÈÌ àÄÁ¡¸¢ ¯ûÇò¨¾ ¾¢Õò¾¢ Å¡ú쨸 ¿¢Ä¨Â§Â
Á¡üÚž¡Ìõ. ̽íÌÊ ÁŠò¾¡ý §À¡ý§È¡÷ Å¡ú쨸 «ó¾ ¯ñ¨Á¨Â¾¡ý «È¢Âò¾Õ¸¢ýÈÐ. ±Ð
¦ÅÇ¢ôÀðÎ ¿¢ü¸¢ýȧ¾¡ «Ð§Å ¯ñ¨Á. ­ôÀÊ¡øÅÐ ­ÂÄ¢Âõ. ­Ð áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÄ¢üÌ
«ÊôÀ¨¼Â¡É ´ýÚ. µ÷ ÓÍÄ¢Á¡¸ À¢ÈóÐ ÅÇ÷ó¾ ̽íÌÊ ÁŠò¾¡ý Å¡ú쨸¢ø ÐÈÅ¢¨Éì
¸¡ñ¸¢ý§È¡õ. ¬¸§Å ÓÍÄ¢Á¡¸ Å¡ú¸¢ýÈÅ÷ ¯ûÇò¾¢§ÄÔõ ÐÈ× ¿¢¨Ä
¯ñÎ ±ýÀÐ µ÷ ¯ñ¨Á¡Ìõ. ­øÄÐ §¾¡ýÈ¡Ð, ¯ûǧ¾ ¯¾¢òР ¯ñ¨Á¡Ìõ. ­Ð ºü¸¡Ã¢ÂÅ¡¾õ.
áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÄ¢üÌ «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¡ÉÐ. ÀìÌÅò¾¢ý ¸¡Ã½Á¡¸, º¢Äáø Å¡ÆôÀθ¢ýÈÐ, «ó¾
ÀìÌÅį̀ÈÅ¢ý ¸¡Ã½Á¡¸ ¦ÀÕõÀ¡Äáø ÓÊ¡Р§À¡¸¢ýÈÐ. ¡÷ ¦ÁöÂ¡É ÐÈÅ¢¨É
«¨¼¸¢ýÈ¡÷¸§Ç¡ «Å÷¸§Ç ¾£Å¢Ã ºÁÂò¦¾¡ñ¼÷¸Ùõ ¬¸¢ýÈÉ÷. ¿ÁÐ ¿¡ÂýÁ¡÷¸û ¬úÅ¡÷¸û
¿øħš÷ ±ÎòÐ측ðÎ. (­ô¦À¡ ­ôÀÊôÀððÅí¸ ­Õ측í¸Ç¡ ­ø¨Ä¡  ±ýÀÐ §Å¦È¡Õ Å¢ºÂõ)

­ý¦É¡Õ §¸ûÅ¢ ¾õÀ¢ ͨÄÁ¡ý. ÐÈÅÈò¾¢üÌ ÀÊôÀÊ¡¸ ­ðΦºøÄ¡¾ µ÷ ºÁÂõ ºÁÂÁ¡ÌÁ¡?
Å¡ú쨸¨Â ¿ýÈ¡¸ Å¡ÆÅÆ¢¸¡ðÎõ ´÷ ºÁÂõ «§¾ ¦À¡ØÐ «ó¾ ¯Ä¸¢Âø Å¡ú쨸¢ĢÕóРŢÎÀðÎ
;ó¾¢ÃÁ¡¸¢¼ ¾ýÛû ´÷ ÅÆ¢¨ÂÔõ ¦¸¡ñÊÕ츧Åñ¼¡Á¡? ­Ð ºÁ šú쨸¨Âô ÀüÈ¢ µ÷
¦À¡ÐôÀ¨¼Â¡Éì §¸ûÅ¢.
 ºÃ¢ ¾õÀ¢ . ­íÌ ÐÈÅÈõÉ¡ ±ýÉ «ôÀðÊý¸¢È §¸ûÅ¢ ÅÕ¾¡ ­ø¨Ä¡? ¸¼ó¾ ÓôÀÐ ÅÕ¼í¸Ç¡¸
­ó¾ §¸ûÅ¢ ±ý¨É «Ã¢îº¢ì¸¢ð§¼ ­ÕìÌ. ­ýÛõ Óغ¡ ¦¾Ã¢Â¨Ä. ¬Â¢Ûõ «ÕðÌÈû§Ç ¦º¡ýÉÐ
§À¡§Ä. "¦Àñ¨Á¨Âò ÐÈôÀÐ ÐÈÅøÄ Áɾ¢ý, Òý¨Á¨Âò ÐÈôÀ§¾ «·Ð" ±ýÀ§¾ ±ÉìÌ ¯¼ýÀ¡Î.
 ¦Àñ¸ûÛ ¦º¡øÄ¡§Á, ¦Àñ¨ÁýÛ ¦º¡ø§Èý À¡Õ. «Ð¾¡ý µ÷ Å¢ò¾¢Â¡ºõ. ÐÈÅ¢ý «ÊôÀ¨¼
¸¡Áò¨¾ô §À¡ì¸ø, «Ð ¬Ïõ ¦ÀñÏõ ­¨½óÐ Å¡úó¾¡ø¾¡ý ÓÊÔõ. ¸¡Áò¨¾ §À¡ì¸¢ð¼¡, ÁüÈ
¬¨º¸Ùõ ¾¡§É §À¡Â¢Îõ. À¢ÈÌ ¯ûÇõ «Õ§Çò ¾¡É¡¸¢ «ý§À º¢Åõ ±ýÚ Å¡úó¾¢Îõ. ¬ñ¸û
¦Àñ¸¨Ç ¦ÅÚòÐ ¸¡ðÊüÌ µ¼ÈÐ, ¦Àñ¸û ¬ñ¸¨Ç ¦ÅÚòÐ ¸ý¡ Á¡¼í¸Ç¢ø ´Îí¸¢ÈÐ ±øÄ¡§Á,
Ţþõ §À¡Ä ¾ü¸¡Ä¢¸í¸û ¾¡ý. ±ôÀÊ ¸¡Áò¨¾ §À¡ì¸¢ÈÐ, «¾ý «ÊôÀ¨¼¸û ±ýÉ ±ýÀ¨¾, ¿¡¾
Å¢óÐ «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢ø ¿£ ÀÊì¸ô§À¡È ¾¢Õ¦¿È¢¦¾Ç¢Å¢ø Å¢Ç츢  ­Õ째ý. ÀÊîÍ ¦¾Ã¢ïÍì¸.

­ýÛõ ´ýÛ. ´ù¦Å¡Õ ¿¡Ùõ ¿¡õ ±¨¾Â¡ÅÐ ÐÈóи¢ðξ¡ý ­Õ째¡õ. ­ø§ÄýÉ¡ ÅÇ÷
±ôÀÊÅÕõ? ÀòÐ ¿¡¨Ç츢 Óý ­Õó¾ ͨÄÁ¡ý ­ýÚ ­ø¨Ä. Á¡È¢Å¢ð¼¡÷. ¿¡õ ±øÄ¡Õ§Á ÐÈóÐ
ÐÈóо¡ý ÅÇ÷¸¢ý§È¡õ. ­Ð¦ÅøÄ¡õ º¢ýÉî º¢ýÉ ÐÈ׸ǡ¸ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ. ¾¡É¾ÕÁí¸û «¨ÉòЧÁ
ÐÈôÀ¢¨É ÅüÒÚòÐÅÉ. ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä §¿¡ýÒ, ƒì¸¡ò §À¡ýȨŠÐÈì¸ò¾¡§É ÁÉ¢¾¨É ÀÆì̸¢ýÈÉ?

­ôÀ ¿£ ±ýÉ¡ ¿¢¨É츢§È? ¸Ê¾õ ¿£ñÎ §À¡îÍ. «¾É¡¦Ä ¿¢Úò¾¢Î§Èý.

«ýÒ «ñ½ý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý



ENTRY 13

: "K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>
 
 

«ýÀ¢üÌ⠧ġ¸¿¡¾ý «ñ½ÛìÌ Å½ì¸õ !
¸£§Æ ¿¡ÉÈ¢ó¾Å¨Ã...

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¬¸, §º¡¾¢ò¾ø, ¸½ì¸ð¼È¢¾ø, ¿¢Ã¡¸Ã¢ò¾ø ±ýÀÉ
¾¢ÕìÌáɢø  ­øÄ¡¾¾¡ø, «íÌ ÜÈôÀÎÅÐ ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢Âø «øÄ . «ôÀËýÉ¡, «íÌ
ÜÈôÀÎÅÐ áĢ «È¢Å¢ÂÄ¡¸ò¾¡ý ­Õì¸ÓÊÔõ.
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¾¢Õì Ì÷-¬¨É ¿£í¸û ÓØÅÐõ ÀÊòÐÅ¢ðË÷¸Ç¡ ?
«¾üÌ §¿ÃÊÂ¡É «÷ò¾õ '¾÷ƒ¤Á¡' ­Õ츢ÈÐ.
«¾üÌ Å¢Â¡ì¸¢Â¡Éõ '¾ô…£÷' ­Õ츢ÈÐ.
«¾ýÀ¢ý ±ó¾ źÉõ ±ó¾ §¿Ãò¾¢ø «ÕÇôÀð¼Ð,
±ó¾ ­¼ò¾¢ø «ÕÇôÀð¼Ð ±ýÀ¾üÌ '†¾£Š¸¨Ç'Ôõ À¡÷츧ÅñÎõ.
­ŠÄ¡ò¾¢ø ­¾ü¦¸ýÈ ¬Ã¡ö측¸¦Åý§È,
ÀÄ Àñʾ÷¸û ¦¾¡¼÷óÐ «¾ü¸¡¸ §¿Ãò¨¾ ¦ºÄÅÆ¢òÐì ¦¸¡ñÎ ­Õ츢ȡ÷¸û. (­øÄÈ
Å¡ú쨸Լý)
«ÐÅøÄ¡Áø ­ŠÄ¡õ «øÄ¡¾ ¬Ã¡ö¡Ç÷¸Ç¢ø º¢Ä÷,
«ÃÀ¢¦Á¡Æ¢¨Âì ¸üÚ, «¾ý ­Ä츽õ ¦¾Ã¢ó¾ôÀ¢ý¾¡ý,
Ì÷-¬ý ÀüȢ ¬Ã¡ö¢§Ä§Â ­Èí¸¢ ­Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
«ÐÁðÎÁøÄ¡Áø, ­ŠÄ¡Á¢Â ¬Ã¡ö¡Ç÷¸û ¦º¡øÄ¡¾ º¢Ä
Å¢ºÂí¸¨ÇÔõ ¦º¡øĢ¢Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
«ÃÀ¢¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ø ¯ûÇ ´Õ ±Øò¾¢ý ºô¾ò¾¢ø (¯îºÃ¢ìÌõ§À¡Ð)
ŠÅÃõ Á¡È¢Å¢ð¼¡ø «÷ò¾§Á Á¡È¢Å¢Îõ. ÀÊìÌõ§À¡Ðõ «ôÀʧÂ...
­Ð «§ÃÀ¢Â¡Å¢ø À½¢Â¡üÚ¸¢È ­ó¾¢Â÷¸ÙìÌ, (¿¨¼Ó¨È À¡„¨Â ¨Åò§¾)
µÃÇ× Å¢ºÂõ ÒâÔõ. ¿¢ü¸, ¿¨¼Ó¨È¢ø ÒÆí̸¢È «ÃÀ¢ìÌõ,
Ì÷-¬É¢ø ¯À§Â¡¸ôÀθ¢È «ÃÀ¢ìÌõ ¿¢¨È§ŠŢò¾¢Â¡ºÓñÎ.
«ÐÁðÎÁøÄ¡Áø ¾Á¢Æ¢ø «ôÀʧ «ÃÀ¢¨Â ±Ø¾¢, «ÃÀ¢ ­Ä츽ôÀÊ
ÀÊì¸ÓÊ¡Ð. «ÃÀ¢¨Â ¾Á¢Æ¢ø ±Ø¾¢¨ÅòÐ즸¡ñÎ, («÷ò¾ÁøÄ)
µ¾ìÜÊ ӊģõ¸û ­Õ츢ȡ÷¸û. «Ð ¾ÅÈ¡É «÷ò¾ò¨¾ ¯ñ¼¡Ìõ
Å¡öôÒ¸û ¯ñÎ. ²ý ­¨¾¦ÂøÄ¡õ ±Ø¾¢§Éý ±ýÈ¡ø...
­ó¾ «ÇÅ¢üÌ ¸ÅÉÓ¼ý-¦Á¡Æ¢»¡Éòмý ­Õó¾¡ø¾¡ý Ì÷-¬¨É§Â
ÓبÁ¡¸ô ÒâóÐ즸¡ûÇÓÊÔõ. ¿Î¿¢¨Ä§Â¡Î ¬Ã¡ö ÁÉôÀ¡ý¨Á§Â¡Î
Ì÷-¬¨ÉôÀüȢ ±Ø¾¢ÂÅ÷¸û (ӊģõ «øÄ¡¾Å÷¸û)
¿£í¸û ¦º¡ø¸¢È ±øÄ¡ ­ÂÖõ ­ÕôÀ¾¡¸§Å ¦º¡øĢŢðÎô §À¡Â¢Õ츢ȡ÷¸û.
ÐÈÅÈõ¾Å¢Ã. ¸£§Æ ´Õ ¬Ã¡ö¡Ç÷ ¿£í¸ ­ø¨Ä ±ýÚ ¦º¡ýÉ ­Âø¸û
­Õì¸ÈÁ¡¾¢Ã¢ ¦º¡øÈ¡Õ À¡Õí¸.
 

"Medieval Islam was technologically advanced and open to innovation. It
acheived far higher literacy rates than in contemporary Europe;it
assimilated the legacy of classical Greek civilization to such a degree
thatmany classical books are now known to us only through Arabic copies.
It invented windmills ,trigonometry, lateen sails and made major
advances in metallurgy, mechanical and chemical engineering and
irrigation methods. In the middle-ages the flow of technology was
overwhelmingly from Islam to Europe rather from Europe to Islam. Only
after the 1500's did the net direction of flow begin to reverse."

(pg 253) Jared Diamond a world renowned UCLA sociologist, and
physiologist won the Pulitzer Prize for his book: "Guns, Germs, and
Steel."
(­Å÷¾¡ý «ó¾ ¬Ã¡ö¡Ç÷)

..............................................................
ºÃ¢ ¾õÀ¢ . ­íÌ ÐÈÅÈõÉ¡ ±ýÉ «ôÀðÊý¸¢È §¸ûÅ¢ ÅÕ¾¡ ­ø¨Ä¡? ¸¼ó¾ ÓôÀÐ
ÅÕ¼í¸Ç¡¸ ­ó¾ §¸ûÅ¢ ±ý¨É «Ã¢îº¢ì¸¢ð§¼ ­ÕìÌ. ­ýÛõ Óغ¡ ¦¾Ã¢Â¨Ä. ¬Â¢Ûõ
«ÕðÌÈû§Ç ¦º¡ýÉÐ §À¡§Ä. "¦Àñ¨Á¨Âò ÐÈôÀÐ ÐÈÅøÄ Áɾ¢ý, Òý¨Á¨Âò ÐÈôÀ§¾ «·Ð"
±ýÀ§¾ ±ÉìÌ ¯¼ýÀ¡Î.
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«ôÀÊýÉ¡, ¨¸ÂìÌÎí¸ ¿£í¸ ­ó¾ Å¢ºÂòÐÄ ¿õÁ ¬Çñ§½¡ !

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¿¡ý À¾¢ø ¦º¡øħÅñÊ «Åº¢ÂÁ¢ø¨Ä§Â ?

º¡Á¢Â¡Ã¡ ¬ìÌÈÐ ­ŠÄ¡õ ºÁÂÁøÄ. ÅûÙÅý «ÕðÌÈûÄ
¦º¡ýÉ ÐÈ×¾¡ý ­ŠÄ¡òÐÄ ­ÕìÌ.

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´ù¦Å¡Õ ¿¡Ùõ ¿¡õ ±¨¾Â¡ÅÐ ÐÈóи¢ðξ¡ý ­Õ째¡õ. ­ø§ÄýÉ¡ ÅÇ÷ ±ôÀÊÅÕõ? ÀòÐ
¿¡¨Ç츢 Óý ­Õó¾ ͨÄÁ¡ý ­ýÚ ­ø¨Ä. Á¡È¢Å¢ð¼¡÷. ¿¡õ ±øÄ¡Õ§Á ÐÈóÐ ÐÈóо¡ý
ÅÇ÷¸¢ý§È¡õ. ­Ð¦ÅøÄ¡õ º¢ýÉ º¢ýÉ ÐÈ׸ǡ¸ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ. ¾¡É¾ÕÁí¸û «¨ÉòЧÁ
ÐÈôÀ¢¨É ÅüÒÚòÐÅÉ. ­ÍÄ¡ò¾¢§Ä §¿¡ýÒ, ƒì¸¡ò §À¡ýȨŠÐÈì¸ò¾¡§É ÁÉ¢¾¨É
ÀÆì̸¢ýÈÉ?
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«ôÀÊô §À¡Îí¸ñ§½...!

«ýÒ¼ý
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ENTRY 14

 "Dr.K.Loganathan" <loga@usm.my>

«ýÒ Í¨ÄÁ¡ý,
Á¸¢ú ¾õÀ¢ Á¸¢ú. ¿¡õ ±øÄ¡Õ§Á «È¢Â¡¨Á¢§Ä ¾¡ý ­Õ츢ý§È¡õ. «¾¨É ÁÈÅ¡Ð
Ţš¾¢òÐ ¦¾Ç¢× ¦ÀÕž¢ø ¾ÅÚ ­ø¨Ä «ôÀðËýÛ ¿¢¨É츢§Èý. ¬É¡ø ­É¢ ¾Á¢ú ­¨½Âõ
§Åñ¼¡Á¢Ûõ  ¿¢¨É츢§Èý. ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÇ¡¸õ Åó¾¢Î. ¯ÉìÌ «¨ÆôÒ «ÛôÀ¢
­Õ츢ý§Èý. Áò¾Åí¸ Áɺ ÒñÀÎò¾ ¿¡ý Å¢ÕõÀ§Ä. ´§Ã ´Õ Å¢ºÂõ ¾õÀ¢. «ÕðÌ鬂 ÅûÙÅ÷
±Ø¾§Ä. «Å÷ ±Ø¾¢ÉР ¾¢ÕìÌÈû. ­ó¾ «ÕðÌ鬂 ±Ø¾¢ÉÐ ¿¡ý ¾¡ý ¾õÀ¢. ­¾¨É
§¿Ãí¸¢¨¼ìÌõ §À¡¦¾øÄ¡õ ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢§Ä §À¡ðʸ¢ðΠŧÃý. «Ð§Ä ÐÈ× Å¡ú쨸¨Â Àò¾¢ ÀÄ
«¾¢¸¡Ãí¸û.  «Ð§Ä "¦¾¡ñÎ À½¢" «¾¢¸¡Ãò¨¾ ¯É측¸ò ¸£§Æò ¾§Ãý. ¯ÉìÌ Á¢¸×õ
À¢ÊìÌõÛ ¿¢¨É츢§Èý

        1. ÐÈôÀ¢ý ¦¾¡¼ì¸õ ¦¾¡ñΫРÁÈôÀ¢ý
            ÁÈÅ¡Ð ÅÕ Á¢ÈôÒ

       2. º¢Ú¦¾¡ñÎ ¦ºö¾ø ¦ºö¡¨Á¢ý Á¢¸¿ý§È
           ¦ÀÕ󦾡ñÎ §À½¡ì ¸¨¼
 
        3. ÐÈ󾡧à ÂøÄ÷ ¦¾¡ñÎÀ½¢ §À½¡÷ÁüÚ
            ¯Èúó¾¡÷ ¯ñ¨Á¦¿È¢ ¢ɢýÚ
 
        4. ÐÈÅ¢ì ÌâÂÐ ¦¾¡öŢġò ¦¾¡ñÎ
             ÁÈÄ¢ìÌâ Á¡üÚ Á·Ð

        5. ¯ñÎ ¸Ç¢òÐ ¯ñÅÇ÷ô §À¡÷ìÌ
            ¦¾¡ñ¦¼ý ÀÐ ÐôÒ ­ø
 
        6.  ¦¾¡ñ¦¼Ûó ¾ñ¦¼¡Î ÍüÚÄ¡ ¦ºøÅ¡÷ìÌ
               ±ý¦ÈýÚ ÓñÎ ²Á¡ôÒ

        7   ¦¾¡ñ¼÷º£÷ ÀÃ×ó §¾¡ÆÕó ¦¾¡ñ¼§Ã
               ¦¾¡ýÚÓ¾ Öñ¦¼Éò §¾¡üÈ

        8. ­øÄÈÓõ ÐÈÅÈÓõ ­É¢Â¦¾¡ñ ÎüÈ¡ø
               ÒøÄȢŢý Åý¨Á ¦À¡öìÌõ

        9. °ö¾¢ì ¸ÎÅƢ¢ø ¯¾×¿ø æýÚ§¸¡ø
             ¬öž¢ýÈ¢ ¦ºöÂÈô À½¢¸û

        10. ´ýÈ¡ö ­¨Èŧɡ ΨÈóЦºö À½¢¦ÂÄ¡õ
                ¿ýȡ¨Á Ôó¿ÄÓó ¾Õõ

­ôÀÊ ÌÈû ¡ôÀ¢§Ä 3000 ÌÈðÀ¡ì¸û ¾õÀ¢. Á§Äº¢Â¡Å¢§Ä ­¾¨É «îº¢ðÎ ¦ÅǢ¢¼ ­íÌûÇ
¾Á¢ú ±Øò¾¡Ç÷¸Ç¢¼Á¢ÕóР ¦Àâ ¸ñ¼Éò¾¢üÌ ¬Ç¡§Éý. ±ýÉ ¦ºö¢ÈÐ? ¿õÁ ¾Á¢ú ­Éõ
«ôÀÊ ¦¸ðÎ츢¼ìÌÐ. ­¦À¡Ø¦¾øÄ¡õ ¿¡ý ­¨ÈÅÛ츢𼠧ÅñÊ츢Ȧ¾øÄ¡õ  ­ó¾ ¾¢ÕÅÕðÌȨÇ,
¯¨Ã§Â¡Î ±Ø¾¢ ÓÊì¸¢È «ÇÅ¢ü¸¡¸Å¡ÅÐ, ­ó¾ ¯Ä¸¢ø ±ý¨ÉÅ¢ðÎ ¨Å «ôÀËí¸¢ÈÐ ¾¡ý.  ­ó¾
¿øÄ ¸¡Ã¢Âõ ÓÊïºÐýÉ¡, ºÃ¢ Å¡úó¾ÐìÌ
µ÷ ¿øÄ ¸¡Ã¢Âõ Àñ½¢ð§¼¡õ «ôÀÊýÛ ¸Å¨Ä ­øÄ¡§Á §À¡Â¢¼Ä¡õ ¾õÀ¢.    ­ø¨Ä¡?
 

«ñ½ý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý


ENTRY 15
 

 "K.M. Sulaiman" <sulaiman44@hotmail.com>

«ýÀ¢üÌâ «ñ½¡ Žì¸Áñ½¡ !

............................................................
«ýÒ Í¨ÄÁ¡ý,
Á¸¢ú ¾õÀ¢ Á¸¢ú. ¿¡õ ±øÄ¡Õ§Á «È¢Â¡¨Á¢§Ä ¾¡ý ­Õ츢ý§È¡õ. «¾¨É ÁÈÅ¡Ð
Ţš¾¢òÐ ¦¾Ç¢× ¦ÀÕž¢ø ¾ÅÚ ­ø¨Ä «ôÀðËýÛ ¿¢¨É츢§Èý. ¬É¡ø ­É¢ ¾Á¢ú ­¨½Âõ
§Åñ¼¡Á¢Ûõ  ¿¢¨É츢§Èý. ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÇ¡¸õ Åó¾¢Î. ¯ÉìÌ «¨ÆôÒ «ÛôÀ¢
­Õ츢ý§Èý. Áò¾Åí¸ Áɺ ÒñÀÎò¾ ¿¡ý Å¢ÕõÀ§Ä. ´§Ã ´Õ Å¢ºÂõ ¾õÀ¢. «ÕðÌȨÇ
ÅûÙÅ÷ ±Ø¾§Ä. «Å÷ ±Ø¾¢ÉР ¾¢ÕìÌÈû. ­ó¾ «ÕðÌ鬂 ±Ø¾¢ÉÐ ¿¡ý ¾¡ý ¾õÀ¢. ­¾¨É
§¿Ãí¸¢¨¼ìÌõ §À¡¦¾øÄ¡õ ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢§Ä §À¡ðʸ¢ðΠŧÃý. «Ð§Ä ÐÈ× Å¡ú쨸¨Â Àò¾¢
ÀÄ «¾¢¸¡Ãí¸û.  «Ð§Ä "¦¾¡ñÎ À½¢" «¾¢¸¡Ãò¨¾ ¯É측¸ò ¸£§Æò ¾§Ãý. ¯ÉìÌ Á¢¸×õ
À¢ÊìÌõÛ ¿¢¨É츢§Èý
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«ÕðÌÈû §ÅÚ, ¾¢ÕìÌÈû §Å¦ÈÉ

ÒÐìÌÈû ¾ó¾ ¦À⡧Ã...

¿¡õ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢§Ä§Â ºó¾¢ô§À¡õ.:-)
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