‚ÂÆ´±ò °ÁÝ ×Ìґì (2)



 Äòé‘Å ¸–Ö: (1)ã€× ؜‘Ì€«


 Äòé‘Å º¥ÒÅ: ½é¢ œÀÆ´°‘Ñ €µÆ‘ǍÅ.


1.0 þ×±Æэäò €µÆ‘ǍÅ

3.1.1 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ ÀÌ»€î —ºÍ³Å °àØþÆ ¶Æ‘Æ ¡´±Ì´³ €µÆ‘ǍŠ×ãѹ³è〰 —œòé º¥Ò´±Ö
¯þ¥‘Å. —ã°À€Ì¿ ºíêÆ ×Ìґíì ê¿½è —°äב ƒÖ€Ò. ‚ÇñÅ —ã°ÀÑ ‡òé —ºÆÑ œ›
ƒÒ™ŽÆ›äÖ ºÇÖ×€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ´þ°‘¨, €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° °À³ …€Ì é¿º‘Ö —ºÍ³Å ×ãÑ´°
º™Ò Ÿ×‘Á ‡ñŠב´œ‘ÆîÑ °Áâ µ‘ª¦îÑ ‡òº³ ê£Ñè ºÒÌ‘Ö ‡¨´±Æź¿º¨Å ‹Ñ ×Ìґíì
ê¿½ ‚Å. þÀÕÅ œ›Å ÀÏØÆ ‘Ò´±Ö, ‘¤½Ì´±Ö ½´°œÀÆ´€°¢ þœÑ¹° ±™µ‘°Ñ °ÑÀÑ´±
‡òº‘эæÅ ƒòñÅ ºÒÏÅ ½´° œÀƤ œ‘ѹ° €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° ×ãÑ´³èãîÑ.  €×þœ¦´€° ×ãÑ´°
«‘°Ñ ‡òº‘Ñ '¯ ‚°Ñ' ‡ñÅ °ÁÝ̑ ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. ƒ×Ñè °ÁÝэ㑍 ƒÏ¹³ —‘¯¨ ×¥—À‘ÞÇÖ
ºÒ ã€×ÇÆÖ ¸–퍀㠇ౠ…Ò—›Å ƒ´°€Æ ¹°€îè ºÌ× —ºÍ³Å …€Ý´³è㳠Ƒ̑ÕÅ
À왍 æƑ° …¯€Àã‘Å. ƒïÆ °Á⠗À‘ÞÇÖ ƒ×í€é—ÆÖґŠµÀ™
ØÍ¿º°‘, ƒòìÅ ƒé¹³º¥‘³ ¶íÅ ¸–Ò‘ 'À¬þÀ€Ò´ ³éÚ' ‡ñÅ ž´°€Ò¢ œ‘´°î‘Íò
é¿º‘î ¸–Ö ƒÏ™Žòé³. ƒã›þ‘צäò Ò¿º±‘Ì´þ°‘¨ ŠÏ› ‡¯«¿º¨×³. ƒ°ò ‘ÒÅ
…ì±Æ‘´ —°ÍƑ³ þº‘ÇñÅ ¢œ‘ò썀㠀״³, Ž.». ‰¹°‘Å ÖÒ³ ‚é‘Å ¸–í鑯¦î°‘
ƒ°€î —‘èãґÅ. ƒ°€î º´—°‘òº°‘Å ¸–í鑯¦Ö À‘Àþ‘º‘´±Æ‘Æ ….þ×.œ‘Áµ‘€°ÆÑ ×эè
 ‹€Ò¢ Ÿ×¦äÓϹ³ ‡¨´³ Ïź° …€ÌþƑ¨ ¢þœíêîÑ. ±Ö ½´°Ñäò €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° Ø㙐Å
º±™ …€Ì ƒÆíéæƑ³ ت¨Ø¥,  œÂº‘Ò´±Ö Šã€× ³€Ìœ‘Á »è€ã ×Ñè Í±ñÅ ÃÆòì
ƒ™€é€Æ™ €ã¹³ Á¢ é¿º‘î ‹Ñ …€Ì€Æ ‡à± ÍÆ¿ ºÒ ×Ìґíì™ ê¿½€ãÉÅ °¹³èãîÑ.
ƒ¿º¥ÒÅ òî‘Íò …€Ì€Æ´ °àØþÆ  —ºÏź‘ÕÅ —œÖÕÅ; þׯ¦Æ ƒ¥›äÖ »é ×Ìґíì™
ê¿½æÅ °Ì¿º¨Å. ƒ°í ¨´°º¦Æ‘ ‹ÌãÚ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ°‘ º±òÄòé‘Å ¸–í鑯¦í Ãíºª¥
½´°Á´±Ìî‘Íò 'ÙÌþœ‘ÞÆÅ' ‡ñÅ ƒÒ™« ¸–ÕÅ °í —ºÏ¹þ°×î‘Ñ ‡à±Æ …€ÌÉÅ ºÒ ã€×ÇÆíê¿½™€ã —‘¯¨è㰑´ ±âŽòé³. þׯ¨›‘Ö, ³ÚÅ ƒ› ºÆòº¨´°¿º¨Å. °Ñ™Å œÅº¹°¿ºª¥ ºÒ þ ¸–íè ‡ª¥‘Å Šòº°‘Å ¸–í鑯¨äÖ ‡à¹°°‘´ —°ÍŽòé³. ×íêÖ
¯¥Òþ ‡ñÅ ¸–Ö ½´° €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° ×ãÑ´° Šò鑍´ —°ÍŽòé³. ‚ÇñÅ °ò ŠÏ Ò
—œËɪ€ã °ØÑ´³ »é º±—ãÖґŠƒé¹³Øª¥î. À€éÍÀ‘þ× °ò Ï´³™è ÿÒþ ‡ñÅ
œÀ« ã€×ÇÆÖ ¸–ÓÖ Ž€¥™Žòéî.

3.1.2 À¬þÀ€ÒÇÖ €µÆ‘Ǎ´ °´³×¢ ¹°€îƑãÑè œÀƙ«™Ñ ‡òþé Ø䙍¿º¨ŽòéîÑ.
œÀƙ«™Ñ °¹ ±é› þª¥ ‘€°ÇÖ, ™‘Ò´³ ×ݛŽÆ ‡Öґ œÀƛäò €¥¿»¦è ƒ›
Ø㙍Ãé —°‘´³™ ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. »í‘Ò´±Ö Ï«¹±Æ‘Ñ °ò ´±Æ‘ÍÖ  ƒÜבìÅ
ƒ°í þÀÕÅ —œËŽòé‘Ñ. º±î‘›‘Å ¸–í鑯¨ Ø´±Æ‘̯ÆÍò 'œÑ× °Ñœî œ›ŽÌÅ' ‡ñÅ ×¥—À‘Þ
¸–ÕÅ ƒ°€î¿þº‘òé Šòþé ‚ÇñÅ ºÌº™ Ÿº™ ¹°€îè ƒÖ€Ò. ´±Æ‘ÍÖ ‘«¿º¨Å
¸®™À‘î À쿽€Ìè  œ‘´°î‘ͥŠƒÖ€Ò —Æòé‘ÕÅ, ƒ› ˆ€îÆ œÀƛè '—œ‘íé¨À‘íéÅ
…€¥Æ³', 'Àî´±Ö €×™Å ãØí —œÜس ÖÒ' ‡òé×‘ì ê¿º‘þ× Àì´³€Ì™¿ º¨Žòé³.
ƒ°ò×Þ ´±Æ‘Ñ þº‘íìÅ ºÌº™ Ÿº™ ¹°€îÇò þ°‘íé´€° œ‘´°î‘Íò À¬þÀ€ÒÇÖ
‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ؜‘Ì€«Çò þµ‘™þÀ "µ€×Æì µò—º‘Ïè" Ƒ€×—Æòì —°ä×þ°Æ‘Å. —º‘ËÆíé —À˗º‘Ï€ãþÆ œ‘´°î‘Ñ µ€×Æì µò—º‘Ïè ‡òŽòé‘Ñ.  —À˗º‘Ïþ㠁´³¢ —œê¹³ Ž¥™Å À‘Ÿ™€ã þº‘™×ÖÒ±ò ƒÜ×‘ì ºÌ¿ºª¥³ ‡î´ —°ÍŽòé³.

3.1.3 ðÓÖ €×² À‘Ñ™´±îÍò €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° Ø㙍¿½Å þº‘³, þ×°ØƑ°ò, ŽÏ°þ‘¦,
ˆ°ÁÖ €œÁï ‡ñÅ Ä׀̢ Ÿª¦, þ×°ØƑ°ò ã€×€ã º´³ ‡òì —‘èã, ŽÏ°þ‘¦ ‡ª—¥òì
—‘èã, €œÁïþƑ ‚—éòþé —‘¯¥°‘ Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. ƒ¹° €×² À‘Ñ™´±îÍò ‘ÒÅ
—°äב´ —°ÍƑ° —בò鑍™ Ž¥™Žòé³. ³ ‡Ü×‘ì ƒÏ¿»ñÅ, ã€×€ã ƒÜ×ãÚ ØÍב
º´³Å —°‘´³Å ‘¯º±ÓϹ³, ƒ×Ñè —°‘֍‘¿»Æ™ ‘Ò´±íÅ ¶Æ‘Æ ¡´±Ì‘Ò´±í¿ »éÅ
×¹°×Ñè ‚þ× ˆé™€éÆ Ž.». µ‘›‘Å ¸–í鑯¦îÑ ‡î —‘ã´°Å. ƒ› µØÒ¿º¨Å º´³
ã€×ã‘×î: ‘¯¥Ö, Ï°Ö, …×ÀÅ, ‚ÀÅ, Ï´°‘º´±, ƒÆÖ½, ‰±Å, º‘×Å, ª ŠÞ êÚ
ÖÒ³ º‘Íþœ¥Å, œÅº×Å  ‡òº€×ƑÅ. ƒ×íêÖ Ã°Ö ‰¹±íÅ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´ þ°‘íé´€° µ‘Å
Ø㙎تþ¥‘Å. ‡¤Æ Ò×íêíÅ ƒ› —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´ þ°‘íéÅ °™¢ œ‘òìþ㑨 …«Ñ´°¿º¨Å.
ƒ¹° ã€×äò º¯»€î Ø㙍¿ ½€ÇÖ, €µÆ‘Ǎ´€°¢ œ‘ѹþ°, '—º‘Ï毀À ½Ò›—‘èã"
…°Ú×î ƒ€× ‡î¿º¨Žòé³; "»ÌÀ‘ Ì«Å »ÌÀ‘«Å" ‡òé €µÆ‘Ǎ €¥¿»¦™ ƒ«›þ×,
»ÌÀ‘בŽÆ —ÀËÆê€× ºÆ¿»™Å ÏØþÆ, Ì«þÀ »ÌÀ‘«Å ‡òþé …¥òºª¨ ƒ€×
Ø͙¿º¨Žòéî. ƒ¹° º´³ ã€×è ×ÞþÆ êØò —œÒÚ —ÀËƑ€ÇÖ —º‘Ï毀À ´±™Å
‡òé×‘ì ƒ×э㳠€¥¿»¦ ±âŽò逰™ ‘¯.

3.1.4 ƒ×íêÖ Ò —°‘֍‘¿»Æ±ÕÅ ‚Ì‘Æ¿ºª¦Ï¿º€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.  º‘×Å ‡òº³ ‹Ñ —º‘Ïäò
ƒò€À ‡òº³, —º‘Ï—ã‘òê€î ˜é¿º¨Å ƒ¥´þ° ºíéé ƒÖ€Ò—Æòì —‘è׳ ‡òŽòé³ …€Ì.ƒ³
ƒÖ —º‘π㿠ºíê ‡¿º¦ ŽãØƑ™Å ¶Ýþׯ¨Å ‡òé —°‘֍‘¿»Æ ŽãØƑ™ ‚Ëþב¨
—°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ°‘´ —°ÍŽòé³. â ×ÏÅ ¡´±Ì›€ã™ ‘« ƒÜÚ¯€À —°äבÅ

518.     ‡¿—º‘Ï ã‘ÇñÅ ÖÒ³ ƒÖ—Òïò
         ¿—º‘Ïè Öґ¿ »ê³—º‘Ïè ˜éÖ

519.     ¿—º‘Ïè ˜êò Ÿª¦™ ˜éÖ

520.     —º‘ϗ㑨 ½«Ì‘¢ Ÿª¨¿—ºÆ ̑ÇñÅ
          —º‘Ïèþ×ì º¥‘ —°‘ò鑐þÀ

ƒ› —º‘ϗ㑨 ½«Ì‘¢ Ÿª¨¿—ºÆÑþÀÖ ‚ËÚ —œÖŽòé³. '‚‘Æ¿¾' ÃÆ헍‘Ž" þº‘òé€× ƒ´°€Æ  —œ‘íã‘Å. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ —º‘Ϫ€ã¿ ºíê —œ‘Öґ¥Ö ¶àÅ þº‘³, Ÿª¥¿º¨Å —º‘Ïè Öґ°  þחé‘ò€é¢ Ÿª¦þÆ ³×ÖÒ³ þ×êÖ€Ò ‡îþׯ¨Å ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ¹° »ê³ —º‘π㙠˜ìÅþº‘³,  °€î Ÿª¦É› ˜éґŠ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ƒ¹° ¸®™›è ‡Ü×‘ì ƒÏ¿»ñÅ, ƒÖґ°  —º‘π㠁°ò  ƒÖґ€À Ø㛐Š׀ÇþÒþÆ ŽãØƑ™Å µ€¥—ºéþׯ¨Å ‡ñÅ Ø㙍Šƒò€À€Æ ‹Ñ  ã€×Ƒ™ŽÉèã³  ‡òº€°™ ‘¯.

3.1.5  ƒï ªÆ‘׳ ŠÞ×êÚ ‡îÚÅ º¨Å. ƒ°€î Ø㙍¿½€ÇÖ ƒÌ‘Àñ™Å ƒÌ‘׫ñ™Å µ¥¹°
þº‘ÍÖ, ƒÌ‘Àò —×òé‘ò ‡òé×Þ  éÀ‘¯»Öґ° ƒÌ‘׫ò þ°‘í鑗îòº€° …«Ñ¹³ —‘èãÖ
‡òì Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ …€ÌƑÍÆÑ. ƒ³ —œ‘ÖÒ±‘Ì  ‡¢œØÆÓÖ, ŠÞÇ€œ ‡¢œ™Ï´þ°‘¨ Šòê
×ώòé³.

917. ŠÞÇ€œ ‡¢œÅ ŠÞÇ€œ æ»î

ƒ°ò —º‘Ïã‘׳, ŠÞ¹° —œ‘Ö€Ò ‡¢œÀ‘ …€¥Æ³ Ü—ב޹° —œ‘ÖÓî‘í —º‘Ïè æڗºìÅ
‡òº³.'ƒ€œ' ƒ› '—œ‘Ö' ‡ñÅ —º‘ÏäÖ ¶íŽòé³. ŸþÀÏ´ °ÁÞÖ 'e-se—Òòì ×Ï×þ°‘¨ ƒ³
Š´³ ×ώòé³.  —°Ë×¢€ÒÆ‘Ñ ƒ°€î ƒòñÅ Ø㙍¿ ½€ÇÖ, 'ƒ×Ñ ÖØÆ‘í €éØÒÑ'
‡òé×Þ, 'Šà™´°‘í €éÉ€¥ÆÑ' ‡ò鑰Ö, '—º‘Ïã‘í €éÉ€¥ÆÑ' ‡ò鑰Ö, ŠÏ —º‘Ïè ê´°
×Þ, —º‘Ï躪¥×‘ìÅ, °î‘þî, ¢—œ‘Ö Ãí쿗ºíé×‘ì› ¯¨—‘è ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. þÀÕÅ ƒ³
'×¹°³ —‘¯¨ ב̑³ æ´°Ö' ‡ñÅ …´±—Æ‘¨ Š´³ ×Ï×€°É› ‘¯. ‚›ŽÒ´±Ö ƒ°€î
implicature ‡òŽòé‘эè. œÂº ‘Ò´³ presupposition ‡òºþ°‘¨Å Š´³¿ º‘Ñ™Ò‘Å.

3.1.6 ƒï ‰²Å ‡òìÅ ‹Ñ ã€× ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ³ …Ґ€Ì ‡òº°‘—ÀòìÅ, …Òþ‘Ì‘í
þèØ ×ÞƑ™ þª¨ ×Þ×ÞƑ¢ —œ‘ÖÒ¿ºª¨×ÏÅ —œ‘í—º‘Ï㑐Š‡òì Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³.
ƒÅÀÌ´±Ö þºÉ¯¨ ‡òì †ÑÀ™è ˜é, °î‘Ö êÆ×ÏÅ ‹Ñ …¯€À ‡î Ø㙍ÃÅ °Ì¿º¨Žòé³.
‚ÇñÅ ƒ³ Á ¸ªºÀ‘î ‹Ñ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ™ Ï´±ò ƒÞÚ ‡òþé ¶€î™´ þ°‘òìŽòé³. ÀÌ»ÆÓÖ
'À̽' ‡òº³ º‘ÌźÍÆÀ‘ ×ÏÅ …¯€Àè ‡òé —º‘ÏäþÒþÆ …«Ì¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ°€î 'historical
understanding' ‡òì °‘׳ ×ÌґíêÆÖ —°äÚè ‡òì —‘èãґÅ. ‘¯:

1500. À‘íéϤ é¿»ò ÀÌ»ÆÖ Žã¿»ò
         º‘Ñ¿½Å ºéàÅ ª¦ÉÅ Ï€ãÉÅ
         òìÅ »è€ãÉÅ ÀÚÅ ÀêÉÅ ‡òì
         Šòº³Å ÝØþƑ¨ ƒã€À¿ —ºÆþÌ

º‘Ñ¿½ ºé⠐ª¦ ‡òé×‘ì ˆò ƒã€À¿ —ºÆÑè €ÀÆþׯ¨Å ‡òì ‚Ì‘Æ¿½, À‘íì°í Á
Í°‘ŽÆ ×Þ ×Þ ×ݛŽ ×ÏÅ ‹Ñ ƒÆÖþº ‡òì ×ÌÒíì¿ þº‘™ŽÖ Ø€¥ ‘¯Žòé‘Ñ.þÀÕÅ:

1590. À̽¶€Ò ±Í°Ö —œËɪ ŽÖ€Ò
         À̽×Þ¿ ºª¥ —œ‘ÖÓ î‘î

1591. À̽¶€Ò ±ÍÇò »ê³»ê °‘Å

1592. ×ݙ‡î¿ º¨×³ …Æѹþ°‘Ñ þÀíþé
           ¶â¢ ×Ñ ª¥‘ ґò

‡òéבì ÀÌ»ò ƒÆÖ½è Ø㙍¿º¨Žòéî. ½±Æ°‘î ‹Ñ ¶â¢ …¯—¥î™ ª¦ ¶ì´±, °ò×Þ
º‘ÌźÍÆÀ‘ —œÒ™˜¦Æ ŠòꙐ Ø´±¨Å …Æѹþ°‘Ñ ×ÞþÆ ×ݙè ‡î¿º¨Å À̽è, º‘ÌźÍƛè,
œÅ»Ì°‘Æ›è …ÏבŽòéî, ‚þ× ƒ´°€Æ ¶â¢™ ª¨è  …¯€À€ã™ —‘¯¨èãî ‡òì
ê™¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ À̽è ×ÞþÆ ‡àÅ —œ‘íã‘þÒþÆ ×ݙè ‡àŽòé€ÀÇò,
×í€é ‚˹³ Ø㙐Š—œËÉèè À̽ ¶€Ò ±Íƙ˜¥‘³ ‡òì ‹Ñ ã€× í»íŽòé‘Ñ ƒ›.
ƒ³þ× '‰²Å' ‡òì ÀÏØíì þº‘ÕÅ.

3.1.7 ƒò—î‘Ï ×€ÇÕÅ ƒ°ò þ°‘íé´€°™ ‘«Ò‘Å. ¦ ãÚ ƒÖґ —œËÉè ×€æè Šò鑍
ó—À‘Þ ‡òé Šò€é °Å —œËÉäÆÓÖ —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ.

1434. ¸¯€ÀÉÅ ŸÏ™ÃÅ ŠäÉ€¥ €ÀÉÅ
         —Àò€ÀÉÅ ‡òì ƒ€× Ø㛍´ þ°‘òê™
         ê´° —º‘Ï€ã æ´°í ×ЅÅ
         ˆ³ ¸°ÓÆ Ã³—À‘Þ ‡òº

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ó—À‘ލäÖ ‹Ñ×€Æþ× 'ºÝ—À‘Þ' ‡òìÅ '‚òþé‘Ñ ב™' ‡ò—éÖґŠº¨Å. ƒ´°€Æ
ó—À‘Þè ŠäÉ€¥€ÀÇò, ˆ³ ¸°ÓÆ€× ‡òº±ò …¯€À ‡òì —‘ãíº‘Òþ° ƑÅ. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥
—°‘֍‘¿»Æ ó—À‘ލ€ãþÆ ±Í´³ ‰²Å ‡òéþ×‘Ñ ã€×€Æ »í‘Ò´±îÑ …¯¥‘™ŽîÑ ‡òì
—‘ãí ƒ¥ñ¯¨. ƒ³ ƒòñÅ ØÍב ‚Æ þׯ¦Æ Šò鑐Å.

3.1.8 ƒï …èã—µê ã€× ÖÒ³ œÅº×Å ‡òº³Å ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ‹Ñ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ™ Ï´±¹ ±Íþº ‡òìÅ
—°ÍŽòé³. ÁÚÅ º€Ý€ÀÆ‘î ‹Ñ °Á⠗œ‘Ö 'ÃòîÅ' ‡òº³. ŸþÀÏ´ °ÁÞÖ 'mu-un' ‡òéבì
؀œ‘Ö …Ϻ‘ Ø㛐ŠŠòì. —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±Ö Äòì —×Üþ×ì —º‘ÏäÖ ƒ³ Ø㛐׀°™
‘¯Žòþé‘Å. â×ÏÅ ¡´±Ì´±Ö 'Ãòî´±Ö …«Ñ°Ö' ‡òéבì, Àî´°‘Ö ‡¯¬ …«Ñ°Ö ‡òé
—º‘ÏäÖ ×ώòé³:

540:     ¦€À ‚¯€À ƒã€À Ä¿þº
         ¦€À ×ò€À ØϹþ° àþ×
         —º¯€À Ìþœ Àþ× ÝØ
         °ò€À ±Í—ºÆÑ …ì¿»ò ŽãØ
         ‘°Ö é¿þº —œé헜‘Ö Øé헜‘Ö ‡òì
         ‚×ì ÄòìÅ …㿺¥ —°‘€ƒ
         òî »éÚÅ ×í—鑨 ×¬
         Ãòî´±ò …«ÏÅ ŽãØ ‡ÖґÅ
         …Æѱ€« ÀϛŽò ¶ÒÇî בÇñÅ
         Œê€« ÀϛŽò Žã¹°‘› ŽÆÕÅ

ƒ› ê™¿ºª¥ —º‘Ϫè ±ª¥  ÖÒ³ ‘ª¥Ò‘‘¿ —º‘Ϫã‘Å (abstract objects), ‰Å½Ò
¸Ñ¢™ ב̑°€×ƑÇñÅ …ª—º‘Ϫþã ƑÅ. ƒ×í€é Àî´°‘Ö ‡¯¬î‘þÒ ŠÞÆ, ‘« ב̑
‡òŽòé‘Ñ ƒ›.  þÀÕÅ —º‘Ï㱍‘Ì™ ãØÆÓÖ, °€ÒØ °€Ò×þ þœÑ¹°€° —ºíþé‘эè
Ãòî´±ò ê× ‡òŽòé‘Ñ.

1083: °¹€°ÉÅ °ò ‰ÉÅ Ãòî´±ò …«Ñº

ƒ› ÃòîÅ ‡òº³ בƑ¥‘³ —ÀãîÀ‘ ƒÏ¹°×‘ì ê¿º‘ …«Ñ´³×°‘Å.  —ÀãîÅ ‡òº³
ÃòîÀ‘ ¶íŽòé³. þÀÕÅ µÀ™ þׯ¥íº‘Ò°‘, —œËÉäÆÓÖ, þחé‘Ï¿ —º‘ÏäÖ ƒ¢—œ‘Ö
Ø㛐Žòé³:

1463. ƒÜØ¥´³ ƒÅ—À‘Þ ƒ×Í×љ …ÍÆ ‡òì
         ÜØ¥´³ ×Ì×љ …€Ì¿º³ ÃòîÅ

ƒ› ÃòîÀ‘׳ Ãò直 …¯—¥î °‘׳ œÅºØ´³ ¶íéґÅ. ºíºÒ ¡â¶€ÒäÖ Æ‘Ñ Æ‘Ñ
‡¿º¦¿ºª¥ —œ‘퍀ã þ°‘íìØ¿ºÑ, ˜í왍€ã —À˶촳×Ñ ‡òì ê¹³ ˜ì×þ° ƒ› ÃòîÅ
‡ò鑎òé³. þÀÕÅ ƒ°€î 'ƒÆ퀍¿ —º‘π㠃í—éî™ Žã´°Ö' ‡òìÅ —‘㿺ª¥°‘, ×£‘î
´±Æ‘Ï™ ‡à¹° ‹Ñ º€ÝÆ þÀíþ‘è º‘¥Ö Ø㙐Žòé³. Šã€× ³€Ìœ‘Á »è€ã …€ÌÇÖ
ƒÜבì ×ώòé³: ƒÆ퀍¿ —º‘Ï€ã Çí—éî™ Žã´°Ö ƒ°ò¯ ¥›—Àî™ —‘¯¨, "³Æ™é
Ú¯€À—Æî µ‘×ÒÑè ³¬¹³ …€Ì¿º³ ƒÆ퀍¿ —º‘Ïä€î Çí—éîґÅ. ƒ³°‘ò …€Ì™Žò,
Øƙíé ‘֜әÅ ²¢ Ÿ¨Å ØÆðÑ äÏÅ ×ƙíé À¯ ×ӗ°òì º‘ª¥‘› ×ݛ×þ°"

ƒ€éÆî‘Ñ ¿—º‘Ïè ‡ñÅ ¸–ÓÖ, ™‘Ò´³ Øã›ŽÆ '˜íêÆÖ' ‡ñÅ ‹Ñ ¸–Ö Ÿª¥¿º¨Žòé³.ƒ³
—°‘֍‘¿»Æ ˜íêÆ€Ò ƒòñÅ ØÍ´³™ ˜êÆ ‹Ñ ¸–Ò‘ ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. Ƒϙ ‡Å—À‘Þ ‡ÜØ¥´±Ö
…ÍƳ ‡òº€° ˜íì ‡òé ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ ‚ËŽòé‘Ñ. —º‘Ï㱍‘Ì´±Ö ƒ³ ºÌ™¿
ºÌ™ ‘«™ Ž¥™Žòé³. ƒ¹° ˜íêÆþґ¨ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ°‘ ƒ¹° œÅº× ã€× —°òº¨Žòé³.

ƒÜבé‘î þ×±Æэäò ã€×è —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±ò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ €À¹³èãþ°, »í‘Ò´±Ö
þ×°À‘Ñ™Å °íÅ Ãíºª¥ ‚À —µêþƑ¨ Ò¹³Ø¥ µÖÒ ‹Ñ ¡â¶€Ò€Æ …¯¥‘™Ž ƒÏ™Ò‘Å.
‚À »ÌÀ‘«Å ‡òé—בòì ˆí½€¥´°‘ º€ÝÆ €µÆ‘ÇÑè —‘èã, þ×°›è þº‘í鿺¨×°í ‹Ñ
ã€× Žª¨Žòé³. ƒ³þ× »í‘Ò´±Ö €µÆ‘Ǎ´þ°‘¨ ×Ñè Š´³¿þº‘ ‹Ñ ×Þ€ÆÉÅ
‘ª¦ÇϙŽòé³.

€µÆ‘ǍŠþ×±Æэ䀥þÆ ƒÜ×‘ì ˆíé› ¯¨¢ —œÖÒ, ½´°Ñä¥Å —ºÍÆ À‘íé±í ‚ã‘Ž
½ÌªÌÀ‘î ºÒ ½±Æ Ï´³™è ‡à×°í ‘Ì«À‘Çíì ‡òº€° ×ÌÒ‘ì µÀ™ µò鑍 …«Ñ´³Žòé³.
°€î ƒï ê³ ‘¯þº‘Å.

2.0 ½´°Ñäò €µÆ‘ǍÅ.

3.2.1 ½´°Ñäò €µÆ‘Ǎ™ Ï´³™è Á ØÍב ºÒ ×¥—À‘Þ ¸–íäþÒ°‘ò ƒÏ™Žòéî ‡òé
þº‘±ÕÅ, þׯ¦Æ ãØí Á ØÍב ž´°€Ò¢ œ‘´°î‘Ñ À¬þÀ€Ò '°×´±éÅ ¾¯¨ °ÏÀ›
þª¥ ‘€°ÇÖ' é׫ ¦è —ºÆÍÖ °¹±Ï™Žòé‘Ñ. ƒ°€î —°‘´³™ ˜ìÅ …€ÌƑÍÆÑ ƒÜבì
˜ìŽòé‘Ñ.

‚±þî¹±Ìò ÏäÆ ã€×è, »Ì´±Æ™Å ñÀ‘îÅ ‡òé ƒÌ¯þ¥Æ‘Å; »Ì´±Æ™À‘׳
Ÿª¨«ÑÚ; ñÀ‘îÅ , ‘Ì«Å ‘ÍÆÅ œ‘À‘ïÆÅ ‡î Ä×€Æ‘™ ˜é¿º¨À‘ÇñÅ ‘ÍƑñÀ‘îþÀ»€ÝÇÖґ°³. ƒ³ º™Å, ˆ³, ±ª¥‘¹°Å, …ºµÆÅ, ¶Àî—Àî ‰¹³ì¿½™€ã …€¥Æ³; ‡ïñÅ, ƒì±Çí ˜êÆ …ºµÆÅ ¶ÀîÅ ƒÌ¯¨Å ±ª¥‘¹°´±Ö ¥›Å. ‡¤ ¶òé º™Å,ˆ³,±ª¥‘¹°Å ‡òé Äòéñè, ±ª¥‘¹°Å œ‘°òÁÆÅ, €×°òÁÆÅ ‡î ƒÏ×€¿ º¨Å. íéÁÖґ° º™Å ðÓÆîµòº™Å, µÖþÒ³, µÖÒ ±ª¥‘¹°Å ‡î×ÏÅ. íéÀ¥Æ€× º™¿þº‘Ó, ˆ³¿þº‘Ó, ±ª¥‘¹°¿þº‘Ó ‡î¿º¨Å. º™¿þº‘Ó »Ì´±Æ™ ØÏ´°Å ðґ Šòº³ ×€ÉÅ, €×°òÁÆ ±ª¥‘¹°¿þº‘Ó ˆ³¿þº‘Ó ´°Å €µ‘¹±Å ØÏ´°—Àî Ä×€ÉÅ, œ‘°òÁÆ ±ª¥‘¹°¿ þº‘Ó œ‘°î ØÒ Ã°Ò‘ ‰×€ÉÅ, œ‘´±Æ‘ ØƑØÏ´± ðґ ‰×€ÉÀ‘Å. ƒ×íìè ²Æ×íé‘í ‘ª¥¿º¨×î×í€é—‘è㑳 µÖÒ×í€éþÆ —‘èãþׯ¨Å ‡òºþ° é׫ ¦è Ø㙐Š°ÏÀÅ ‡îבŽòé³.ƒ› —œËÆ¿º¨Å —ºÏÅ ½Ìª, »Ì´±Æ™´€° ƒ×Ñè Ÿª¨«ÑÚ ‡òþé ‚™ŽØ¨×°‘Å. ×Ìґíì¿þº‘™ŽÖ, —º‘êÓƙ‘ª€Æ ¶Ï؍íºÅ ‡òìÅ œØíºÅ ‡òìÅ þ×캨´°í ‘Ì«À‘Çíì.
…€ÌƑÍÆÏÅ " —ÀËÉ«ÑÚ¿ þºì þµÑÍÀ‘ÚÅ ×ÞÍÀ‘ÚÅ ¶â°Óò, —ºã´°Ñè þµÑÍ¿ þºí€é»Ì´±Æ—ÀòìÅ, ×ÞÍ´€°™ Ï´—°òìÅ —‘¯¨ ‚Ì‘Ë¢ —œË׳ºíê "ã€× ƒÌ¯þ¥  —Æòé‘Ñ"‡òì Ø㙍ÃÅ °ÏŽòé‘Ñ.

‚ÇñÅ íºÅ ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ ‡àÅ ƒ¢—œ‘íè ½´°Ñäò Ï´³€ã —œÜþ× …«Ñ´°×ÖÒ ÖÒ°‘Óò,
ƒ› ½±°‘ ‘®Å(pure percepts) ‡òìÅ ‘ύŠ(concepts) ‡òìÅ ‚¨þבÅ. ‡ÖÒ‘×€ êØò
—œÆÖº‘¨€ã™ Þ´³, Ÿ´°´³ ‰Å½Ò ¸Ñ¢Çò Ø¥ÆÀ‘ Ƒ³ ½Òòéþ°‘ ³þ× ‘®Å ‡òº³.
'³' 'ƒ³' '…³' ‡òì ‹Ñ —º‘Ï€ã …¯—¥ñÅ À‘´±€ÌþÆ êÆ´°Ï׳. ƒ°í þÀíºª¨ "ƒòî³"
‡òì —°äÉÅ ×€ÇÖ …«ÑÚ Ø㛎 ¶íº°í ‘Ì«À‘ ±â×þ° "‘ύÅ" ‡òº³;  Ï±¿
—ºì×°‘Ö ƒÜבì. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ‘®›€ãþÆ ½´°Ñè »Ì´±Æ™Å ‚™Ž, ˆ€îÆ×í€é- ‘ύÅ
—°‘¥Ñº‘î×í€é- ñÀ‘îÀ‘™Ž ƒÏ™ŽòéîÑ.

é׫ ¦äò" Ÿª¨«Ñ€×¿ »Ì´±Æ™Å ‡òì —œ‘ÖÓ Øª¥îÑ; µ‘À œ‘± «™ ŽÍ€Æè
Àíé€× ñÀ‘Š€¥ÉÅ" ‡òé ×͍ª Ø㙍Š˜é¿ ½¹° …€ÌƑÍÆÑ °ÏÅ Ø㙐Šƒ°í
‚°Ìב ƒÏ™Žòé³.

" ‘ªÆ‘׳ ¯ ðÓÆ —º‘êã‘Ö ׯ« ðÓÆ×í€é¿ ºíê™ ‘¯¥Ö ðÓÆî —œË³, ‘«¿º¨Å —º‘Ïäò ƒÆÖ€º ƒ¥Å ‘ÒÅ —º‘Ïè Šäþ㑨 º¨´³™ "Žª¦Æ µ‘À
œ‘±™ «™ ŽÍ€ÆÇò ê×°‘Å' ‡òì ã€× ¸–Ò‘Ñ ˜ì°Óò, ×Íò þ×캨´°í¢
'Ÿª¨«Ñ€×¿ »Ì´±Æ™—Àî¢ —œ‘ÖÓ Øª¥îÑ' ‡òìÅ, µ‘À œ‘±™ «™ŽÍ€ÆÇò €×´°êÉÅ
ƒÒ™«Å ‘ªþÆòê™ Ï°ã€×™¤ þœéÓò, Œ³ ±ØƑ´±Æ‘°Ö ¯¨, '€× ت¥îÑ' ‡òìÅ ˜êî‘Ñ. Ÿª¨«ÑÚ —º‘ϯ€À À‘´±€Ì ¯—¥‘Þ°—ÒòñÅ —º‘Ï㑰€Ò ' Ÿª¨«Ñ —×¨×³, ˆ€î¿ —º‘Ï毀À À‘´±€Ì ‘¯¥Ö'(À¬. 27:61-2) ‡òºÑ. Ÿª¨«ÑÚ ¶ÏØíº™ ‘ª ‡òìÅ, ñÀ‘Š‡òé ‡¢œ …Å€ÀÆ‘Ö µ‘À œ‘±™ «™ŽÍ€ÆÇò €×´³«ÏÅ …«ÑÚ œØíº —ÆòìÅ —‘è. ƒ×í€é ÀéþÆ ƒ¹±ÍÆ £‘îÅ ‡òìŠ؝ª¥ £‘îÅ ‡òìÅ ˜ìº. µ‘Àœ‘± ðÓÆ×í€é´ ±™µ‘°Ñ "º¤œØ° íº€î" —ÆòìÅ, ƒ€× "ƑÚÅ ñÀ‘î ×ñþÀÆ º‘×Å" ‡ò웘ìחÌî´ °ÑÀÑ´± …€Ì´° °´³×»¹³Øò …€Ì‘ÌÑ (90.17) ê™Žòé‘Ñ. °´³× œ›ŽÌÅ, ¶Æ‘Æ»¹³, »ÌÀ‘« œÃ¢œÆÅ, ¶Æ‘Æ¿ »ÌþלŠðÓÆ ¸–Հ̍äÖ ƒ×íêò ƒÆÖ€º¿ ºÌ™™ ‘¯. Ÿª¨«ÑÚ œØíº™ ‘ª™ ¦¿º€¥Æ‘Å; ³ œØíº™ ‘ª€Æ ºÆבئò íéÀ‘Å. ‚°Ò‘íé‘ò, ã€× ¸–Ò‘Ñ, °€î¿ »ÌÀ‘«‘º‘œ›è ‡ª¥ñè Šò鑍™ ˜ìŽòéîÑ"

ƒ› ˜é¿º¨Å Ÿ´° ƒ¹±ÍÆ …«Ñ€×þÆ '‘®Å' ‡òìŠ؝ª¥ £‘î´€°þÆ '‘ύÅ' ‡òìÅ
‚¨Žòþé‘Å. ƒ¿º¦ ×ÏÅ ½´°Ñäò €µÆ‘ǍþÀ —ºÍÆ—×‘Ï ½ÌªÆ‘ €À¹³Øª¥³. þÀÕÅ
ñÀ‘î´€° ƒÜ×‘ì —‘¯¨ ‚À»ÌÀ‘«Å ‡òé—בòì þׯ¥‘—×î °€î ØҙŽÉÅ €×™ŽòéîÑ.
ƒÜ×€ÇÕÅ ½´° €µÆ‘ǍŠ—ºÍÆþ×‘Ñ ¹°€î ŽãÑ¢™ Ø´±¨Žòé³.

3.2.2 ƒ¿—º‘à³ ½´° €µÆ‘ǍŠ—°‘¥Ñº‘ ºÒ þèØè ‡àŽòéî. ƒÜ×‘ì ×эè
»Ì´±Æ™´€°ÉÅ ñÀ‘î´€°ÉÅ Ø㙐׳ —º‘Ϲ³×°‘? ‡òº³ Šòì. ‚À»ÌÀ‘«Å ‡òé
Šòì þׯ¥‘Å ‡òì ˜ì׳Š—º‘Ϲ³×°‘? ‡òº³ »Í—°‘òì. ƒ×íêí ƒ› ê³ Ø㙍Å
°ÏþבÅ. ½´°Ñäò ˆ€îÆ €µÆ‘Ǎ™ ˜ì—ãÖґŠƒ×íêò ×ÞþÆ°‘ò —œÖŽòéî. ‚Ñ×À¥þƑÑ
Šã€× ³€Ìœ‘Á »è€ã ×эäò …€Ì€Æ™ íì´ —°äÆґÅ. °í Ãò½ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´þ°‘¨
ƒ×íꙐÍÆ Ò —°‘¥Ñ½€ã Ø㙐þבÅ.
ƒ› ¯¨Å µ‘Å ÀÌ»ÆÓò —ÀËÆêÚ¢ ¹°€îè ¶€é¹°  ¹° ½é ¡´±Ì´±í¢ —œòì ›
˜é¿º¨Å:
 'ƒÏ±€« ‰Åº‘Ö ƒÆ֗µê ×ݑ€À
 ±ÍØÖ —œ‘Ö—Ò‘¨ °Ý‘Ö þׯ¨Å'

‡ñÅ ‚€«€Æ µ‘Å ±ÏźÚÅ ¹±™ þׯ¨Å. ƒ› ƒÏ±€«Æ‘׳ À™ªŸª¥‘ŽÆ …Æѱ€«ÉÅ
³×Öґ Œê€«ÉÀ‘Å. ‰Åº‘ґ׳ Šòéòº‘Ö ºÒØòº‘Ö ‡òº×íþ鑨 ‚¯º‘Ö —º¯º‘Ö
ºÒѺ‘Ö ‡òºîבÅ. ƒ› 'º‘Ö' ‡òº³ —À‘ÞƑ™´±Ö —ºÆїœ‘ÖÓÕŠ؀‘ÖÓÕÅ …Ͻè
×Þ ‚þ× ƒÒ™«¢ —œ¿º´±í ˆ³×‘ €ÀÉÅ —º‘Ϫº‘º‘¨ã‘Å. °Á⠗À‘Þ ƒÒ™«™
˜ìª ¦¿º€¥Æ‘î  ÄÒ¿—º‘Ïæ«Ñè(fundamental categorical distinctions) ƒ€×ƑÅ.
—°‘֍‘¿»Æ¢ —œ‘ÖÒ±‘Ì´±Ö ƒ×í—鑨 °ò€À ÃòïÒ º¥Ñ™€ ‡ñÅ ÄØ¥¿º¯½æÅ ƒòñÅ
ºÒ×í€éÉÅ þœÑ´³èã ‹Ñ ×ãÑ¢ ¶€Ò€Æ™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.(ÀÌ»ÆÖ, —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±í Ãíºª¥
°ïþÆ‘Ñ ¸–Ö ‡òº°í ƒ³ÚÅ ‹Ñ œ‘ò鑐Å) ƒ› µ‘Å Ï°þׯ¦Æ³, ƒ°€îþÆ´°‘ò ½´°ÑæÅ
»éÏÅ œØííº …«ÑØí ˆ³×‘ŽÆ µ‘ÀÅ œ‘±«™ŽÍ€Æ þº‘òé Øíº›þ㑨 ×ÏÅ »Ì´±Æ™Å
‡òŽòéîÑ ‡òº³. ƒÏ±€« ‰Åº‘Ö ×¥—À‘Þ™ ƒòì ‡òº±ò ‚þ× ‡Öґ —À‘ލªÅ Š¿º×ÏÅ
‹Ñ —À‘Þ¿—º‘³Ø(linguistic universals)òì ‡òº±ò ƒ¿º¦´ ±Í´³™ ˜êÆ°‘ ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. ƒï
ƒÜ×‘ì œØíº™ ‘ª …¯—¥î, °í ÄÒÀ‘ ‹Ñ —º‘Ïæ«ÑÚ ƒÏ™þׯ¨ÀÖÒþב? ³þ× ƒ¹°
¶ÏØíº …«ÑÚ ‡òº³. ‚ ƒÜØÏ×€ —º‘Ïæ«ÑÚè ºíêƙ Ï´³è ƒ¹° ¡´±Ì´±Ö ½€°¹³
Ž¥¿º€° ‘¯.

3.2.3 þÀÕÅ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´³ —œ‘ÖÒ±‘Ì´±Ö Žâ ×ÏÅ ¡´±Ì›€ãÉÅ µ‘Å ¹±™
þׯ¨Å:

640. ‡Öґ¢ —œ‘ÖÕÅ —º‘Ïè ê´°îþ×

641. —º‘ϯ€À —°Í°ÕÅ —œ‘ò€À —°Í°ÕÅ
       —œ‘ÖÓò ‚Å ‡òÀî‘Ñ ½Ò×Ñ

642. —°ÍÚ þ×ì ¶€ÒÆÕÅ ê¿»ò þ°‘òéÕÅ
         ƒÏº‘í —éòº —º‘ϯ€À ¶€ÒþÆ

ƒ› 'À‘¨' þº‘òéþ×‘Ñ —œ‘Ö, °ò€î ‹Ñ —ºÆÑ¢—œ‘Ö ‡òì …«Ñ´³Å- °î³ —œ‘ò€À€Æ …«Ñ´³Å-
þ° —º‘à³ ƒ¹° —œ‘ò€À™ þ×é‘ŽÆ À‘¨ ‡ñÅ ‹Ñ ØқŽ€îÉÅ …«Ñ´³Žòé³. ƒ³þ× ‹Ñ
—œ‘ÖÓŠ—º‘ϯ€ÀÉÅ —œ‘ò€ÀÉÀ‘Å. ‡Öґ¢ —œ‘íæÅ ƒÜבþé ‡ïñÅ, —º‘ϯ€À€Æ™
‘ª¨Å ¶€Ò ŠòéÖÒ. ‘ª¥‘ 'Š¨' ‡ñÅ þ×íì€À¢ —œ‘Ö€Ò ‡¨´³™—‘¯¥‘Ö, °í¿
—º‘ϯ€À (sense,meaning) …¯¨, ‚ÇñÅ ³ À‘¨ þº‘òì —º‘êÓƙ‘ª™ ×Ï׳ ÖÒ,
ê¿º‘þÒþÆ êÆ¿º¨×°‘Å. ƒ°€î …«Ñ¹þ° —º‘ϯ€À ¶€Ò€Æ '—°Í½ þ×ì ¶€ÒÆÖ' ‡òìÅ
ê¿»ò þ°‘òéÖ' ‡òìÅ ƒÏ×€Æ‘™ ¯¨èã‘Ñ µÅ —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ.

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ƒÏ×€ —º‘ϯ€À þ°‘òì ¶€ÒÇò ØÍב™þÀ °Áâ ½´°Ñäò »Ì´±Æ™ÃÅ ñÀ‘îÃÅ ‡òì —°ÍŽòé³. ‹Ñ —œ‘ÖÓî‘Ö —°Í½ þ×ì ¶€Ò™Å —º‘ϯ€À€ã, ‚¨ À‘¨ ÀÌÅ À€Ò
þº‘òé×íêí ÄÒÀ‘ »Ì´±Æ™ÃÅ, ê¿»ò þ°‘òìÅ —º‘ϯ€À™ ñÀ‘îÃÅ ƒÏ™Žò闰òìÅ
˜ê, ƒï ƒÜØϺ‘íéþ° —º‘ϯ€À þ°‘òì ¶€Ò ‡òé —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ ×‘™Ží ˆíº, ƒÜØÏ×€þÆ
ã€×è ‡òì ˜ê¿ þº‘¹³èãîÑ ‡òì —°ÍŽòé³. —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ —œ‘í—º‘Ϫþ ƒÜ×‘ì ˜ê¢—œÖÒ, ƒ¹° ½´°´ °ÁÝÑè êØò ‡ÖÒ‘×€ —œÒØíÅ ³þ× —º‘Ϲ³×³ ‡î™—‘¯¨ ã€×è »Ì´±Æ™Å ñÀ‘îÅ ‡ñÅ ƒÌ¯þ¥, ‚À¿»ÌÀ‘«Å ‡î—בòì þׯ¥‘ ‡òéþ×‘Ñ €¥¿»¦€Æ´ °àØîÑ ‡òì —°ÍŽòé³.

3.2.4 Ÿª¨«ÑÚ ‡òé Ï´±ò þ°‘íé´€° —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±Ö þ×ì ºÒ ƒ¥›äÕÅ ‘«™ Ž¥™Žòé³.
þ×íì€À …Ͻäò ƒÒ™«Å ˜é×ÏÅ ‚ÍÆÑ ‡à×‘Ë þ×íì€À¿ ºíê ˜é¿½€ÇÖ:

549. ×íìè
         ‡à×‘Ë þ×íì€À —ºÆÑþ°‘òì ¶€ÒþÆ

550. —º‘ϯ€À Ÿª¥Ö Øƛ—‘ã ×Ï°Ö
         Ø€î¶€Ò …€Ì´°Ö Øî‘Øí ˆíéÖ
         º¯½—‘ã ×Ï°Ö —ºÆї‘ã ×Ï°—Òòì
         òê €î´³Å —ºÆÑ¿ºÆ ¶€ÒþÆ

‡òŽòé‘Ñ. —°Ë×¢€ÒÆ‘Ñ ƒ°€î Ø㙍¿ ½€ÇÖ " —º‘ϯ€À Ÿª¥Ö ‡òº³, 晐¤—œ‘Ö
‡àבƑŽ ¶òé —º‘Ϫ¥ò€îþÆ Ÿª¦, °ò —°‘ÞÖ Ã°Ò‘Çî Ÿª¥‘³ ¶íÅ ¶€Ò " ‡òì ˜ê
"œ‘´°ò …ãò" ‡òì ‹Ñ …°‘Ì«´€°ÉÅ °ÏŽòé‘Ñ. þÀÕÅ 'ºÆï€Ò' ‡òº±ò —º‘Ï€ã
Ø㙐Åþº‘³ ƒÜ×‘ì ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ: ºÆï€Ò ‡òº³, —ºÆÑ ×‘ã‘³ ¶íÀ‘Çò, —œ¿»ò¯
ºÆïòé‘Å ‚°Ò‘ò, °€î 晐Š—œ‘Ö ºÆï€Ò ‡òé‘Çíì. Œþ°Ö, ƒ€× —ÆÖґŠ—ºÆÑ¿
—º‘ϯ€À€Æ¢ Ÿª¦ ¶íéÓò, —º‘ϯ€À Ÿª¥Ö ‡î ¥›Å ‡ïò, ¥›À‘ÇñÅ —º‘ϯ€À
Ÿª¥Ö —º‘ϯ€À À‘´±Ì´€°™ ê´°Ò‘ñÅ, Øƛ—‘ã ×Ï°Ö ¿—º‘ϯ€À ½€¥ —ºÆÑ°í
¶Á´°Å ‚Ž ×ϰґñÅ, ؀Òƀ̴°Ö ¿—º‘Ïäò ½€¥—ºÆÑ¢ ƑÒ‘ñÅ, Øî‘ØíþíéÖ
Üבéòê Øî‘׿º¨Å ¶Ò€ÀÆ°‘Ž ¶íéґñÅ, º¯½—‘ã ×Ï°Ö ¿—º‘Ϫ¯ …èãþ°‘Ñ
«´€°™ ê´³ ïíéґñÅ, —ºÆї‘ã ×Ï°Ö ¿—º‘ϯ€À Ãà³Å …«Ì¿ »êþ°‘Ñ ב˺‘¥‘
×ϰґñŠא´³™ ˜êî‘Ñ ‡ò."

ƒ› "—º‘ϯ€À Ÿª¥Ö" »é×€ ºÆ¶€Ò€ã (predicatives) Š³™Ž, …¯€À À´±€Ì€ÆþÆ Ÿª¨×³
‡òì »é ºÆï€Ò ×€€ã Þ´þ° Ø㙍¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. ƒ³ À¬þÀ€ÒÇÖ ¿º¦þÆ
×ώòé³.‘¯:' Ÿª¨«Ñ —×¨×³, ˆ€î¿ —º‘Ï毀À À‘´±€Ì ‘¯¥Ö'(À¬. 27:61-2).‚
—°‘֍‘¿»Æ ×ÞÇþÒþÆ ƒ¹° º¯€¥Æ °ÁÝ ½´°Ñè °›ã³ €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° º€¥´³™
—‘¯¦Ï™ŽòéîÑ ‡òº³ —°äÚ.

3.2.5 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ™ ‘Ò´±ÓϹ³ ºÇòì ×ÏÅ Ï´°‘ŽÆ 'Ÿª¨«ÑÚ' ‡ñÅ ³, ±Ì‘Ø¥ —ÀËÆêÚ
×ÌґíêÖ €ÀÆÀ‘î ‹Í¥´€°¿ —ºíé  Ï´°‘Å. ƒ°€î €ÀÆÀ‘™ —‘¯þ¥ ×£‘î¿þº—Ì‘äƑ
…ҍŠ…ËÆ×¹° —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ °À³ ×£‘îþº‘°´€° Ƒ´³èã‘Ñ. ±Ö Ã°í ¡´±Ì´³ Äòé‘Å
±Ì«´³ ˆ³ØÖ: "Ÿª¨«ÑבŽÆ »Ìº¤œÅ Ÿª¨«ÑØòê ¶òé œ›‘Ì´±ò ×ÞÆÖÒ³ Ÿ°¹±ÌÁòê  ¶íéґò" ‡òì Ÿª¨«ÑØò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ 'œ›‘ÌþÀ ðÖ" ‡òì 晎òé‘Ñ. (‘¯:Metaphysica  Universalis of Meykandar; Suba's Home Page). ƒ› ‡Öґ¿ º‘р׍€ãÉÅ òïÆÅ îòïÆÅ ‡òé×‘ì ƒÏº‘íê™ —‘¯¨, òïÆ º‘Ñ€×™ ‚Å €î´³ —º‘ÏæîÑڍ€ãÉÅ, Ÿª¨™‘ÒŐ꿽™‘ÒÅ ‡î×ÏÅ ƒÏ×€™ ‘Ò …«Ñڍþ㑨 ×Ï×±ò Ÿª¨«ÑÚ ‡î™ —‘èŽòé‘Ñ. ‚ ƒ›,Ÿª¨«ÑÚ ‘®Å òì, ¶ÏØíº™ ‘ªÉÅ òì. þ×ì Ƒ—°î™ þèØ ‡àŽòé³. °€î ê³ Ø㙐þבÅ. '‘®Å vs ‘ύÅ' '¶Ï؍íºÅ vs œØíºÅ ' ‡òºî þº‘òé Ï´³™þ㑨
—Àˍ¯¥‘Íò Ÿª¨«Ñ€× Ø㙍 "‚±´³ vs ¹°´³" ‡òé Ï´³™€ã êÍŠ—œËþבÅ.
œØíº™ ‘ªÇïòì íº›€ã, ‘ύ›€ã™ Þ´³™ Þ´³ ¹°€îÇò —ºé¿º¨×îþ× Ãòî€×
ƒÌ¯¨Å. ‘ύŠƒÖ€Ò—ÆïÖ ‘®™ Ï´³Å, œØíºÅ ƒÖ€Ò—ÆïÖ ¶Ï؍íºÃÅ þ°‘òêÇ̑.
ƒ×íêí þ×鑍, ‹Ñ —º‘Ïè ðòðÓÖ …¯—¥î …«ÑבÅ þº‘³, —°ä×íé ‹Ñ —º‘³¿º€¥Æ‘î
(global perception) ÀéÇþÒþÆ êבŽòé³. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ —º‘Ïæ«Ñþ× ‚±´°‘Å. ƒï Ü×êÚ
´þ° ¶òéבì, °ò —°ä×íì ¶Ò€ÀÇò —°ä¹³ êÉÀ‘ì †™Ž™—‘¯þ¥ ¶í, °ò æØÖ
—ÀËƑÅ —°èãêØò —º‘Ïæ«Ñþ× '¹°´³' ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. ±‘Ì Àé€ÀÇò, ŠÑ ¸–€Ò
íì«Ñ¹±¥ ÃÆÕÅþº‘³, º‘ÇÌ´±ò ×Þ ¸–Ö ¸°ÓÆ€° —º‘³¿º€¥Æ‘þ× ê¹±Ï™Å þº‘³ ¹¸–€Ò¿ ºíêÆ êÚ ƒ¿þºíºª¥ ‚±´³ ‡î™ —‘èãґÅ. ƒ³þ× ¸–Ó€î™ íì´þ°Ì, ¹°´°‘ …ÏÀ‘íéÅ €¥Žòé³. —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ Ø㙐ŠŸª¨«ÑÚÅ, —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ þº‘íì׳Šƒ¿º¦ºª¥ ‚±´³¿ —º‘Ïæ«Ñþ×´ °ØÌ ½´°Ñäò ‘®ÃÅ ¶Ï؍íºÃÅ òì ‡î´ —°ÍŽòé³. ƒ€×—ÆÖґŠ»é,  ˆ€îÆ º¥Ò›äÖ —°äבÚÅ ƒòñÅ ØÍבÚÅ ‚Ì‘Æ¿º¨Å.

3.2.6 ƒï ½´°Ñäò €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° 晍‘Ãò½, ×э㳠ñÀ‘î´€°ÉÅ þÀÕÅ ˆò ×эè
‚À´€° ت¥îÑ ‡òº€°ÉÅ ê³ ‚Ì‘Æþׯ¨Å. œ‘´°î‘Ñ ×͍ã‘×î:

29: 50-56. ......,µ‘À œ‘±«™ ŽÍ€Æè
  Àíé€× ñÀ‘î´³ €¥É—Àî™
  ‘ÍÆ ‘Ì« œ‘À‘ ïƙÏ´³
  ‹ÍÖ »€Ý™€É 層€Ý Ƒ°³
  îÓí ½€þº‘Ö ‘Íƙ Ï´þ°
  ..........

‡òºî.ƒ×íêí …€ÌƑÍÆÑ â×ÏÅ Ø㙍´€°´ °Ï×Ñ:

" —º‘³—×òé³ œ‘À‘ïƙ Ï´³Å,
‡¢œ—Àòº³ ‘Íƙ Ï´³Å, ð—Òòº³ ‘Ì«™ Ï´³À‘ é׫ ¦ã‘í —‘¯¨ ˜é¿º¨Žòéî. œ‘À‘ïƙ Ï´±ò¯, œ‘°îÃÅ œ‘´±ÆÃÅ ¹¸×ÆÀ‘Ë ƒÖґ€ÀÇò, ‰Æ±íŽ¥À‘Å; ‘î´±Ö ‡àŠƑ€î ŠÓ, ™‘î´þ° ƒòîØ¥—Àî ׀̹³ ‘ª¥‘€ÀÇò »€ÝƑŠ‡òì ¶Æ‘Æ»¹³(3.65) ˜ìŽé³. ÏÃŽÖ ¯¥Ø¥´³ À€Ý —ºËɗÀî´ ³¬ÉÅ ‘Ì«‘ñÀ‘î´±ò œ‘°îÀ‘ŽÆ ÃŽÖ ‘Ì«À‘¢ œ‘´±ÆÀ‘ŽÆ À€Ý ×ÌÚ ŠÏ°€ÒƑ´ ³¬Æ¿º¥‘€ÀÇò »€ÝƑÅ. ‘Ì«À‘ŽÆ ÎíÅ ‘ÍÆÀ‘ŽÆ À€Ý ×ÌØíÅ ƒ€¥™ ‘Ì«À‘ ‘íì ðÓÆ Ú¯€ÀÇò ×‘¹°Ì ‘Ì«Å œ‘´±Æ´±í™ ª¨¿ ºª¥°òé‘Ò‘Ö ³¬Ú ŠÏ °€ÒƑ¿ —ºé¿º¥‘—°òºÑ. ƒ×íêò Ø͹° ‚Ì‘Ë¢€Æ ±™µ‘°Ñ ðÓþÆ‘Ñ ˜êÆ ¸–֍äí ¯¨ —‘è. ‘ÍƑñÀ‘î´±ò, ˆ³×‘ŽÆ ‘ÍÆ´±ò ¯, ‘Ì«À‘ŽÆ —º‘Ï毀À
¶Æ°À‘Óò »€Ý´°í ƒ¥Áò€À¿ ºíê, " »€ÝƑ°³ îÓò ½€þº‘í ‘Íƙ Ï´þ°" ‡òé‘Ñ".

‚, ñÀ‘î´±ÕÅ ‹Ñ ±Ï¿º´€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ‘«×̑° ¾Ñ×´±íÅ ‡±Ï™Å —œÖ׳
‰Æ¿º‘ª¦í …ÍƳ ‡òî, îÓí ½€þº‘Ö …¥ò‘« ×Ï×±òþÀþÒþÆ, ‘ÍƑñÀ‘î±ò þÀþÒþÆ
µÅ»™€ —‘¯¦Ï¹°îÑ ‡òº³ —×俺€¥. †Ž´³ —ºé×ÏÅ €î´€°ÉÅ ƒ×Ñè ñÀ‘î´±ÓϹ³
ØҙŽþÆ €×™ŽòéîÑ. ƒ°î‘Ö ñÀ‘î´€°¿ ºíê ‹Ñ Ã™ŽÆ ±Ï¿ºÅ µ¥¿º€° µ‘Å ‘«þׯ¨Å.
ÀÌ»ÆÕÅ —ã°ÀÏÅ €µÆ‘Ǎ´€° œ™ÌŸÝí ¹°€îº‘í ºª¥€×Ƒ, Ì¿½€¥Æ …´þ°œ´€° Ì¿½
ÿ›ŽÆ ¶ÀîÀ‘¿ —ºì׳ ‡òþé —‘¯¦Ï™ ³ ƒ›þ ƒÖґ³þº‘×€°™ ‘¯. ‰¹³ì¿½™è
ƒÏ¹°‘ÕÅ œ™ÌŸÝí ¹°€î À왍¿º¨Žòé³.

3.2.7 ÀíìÅ ˆ€îÆ ã€×ãÉÅ ×í½ì´± ƒÜØ̯¦ñè ¥™ ÃÆÖ×€°É› ‘«
æŽòé³.…€ÌƑÍÆÑ —°‘¥ÑŽòé‘Ñ:

" ‚À þÀíþ‘è °€î™ ˜ìþבñÅ ˜ìÅ —º‘ÏæÅ ‡î ƒÏ±éÀ‘ א™¿—ºíì™ ˜ìþבî‘Çò ‚ÀÅ ñÀ‘î´³ ¥›—ÀòìÅ —º‘Ïã‘Çò ‘ª™¯ ¥›—ÀòìÅ ±™µ‘°Ñ ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. ƒÜבþé ‰²´€° ‚À´³Å, Ï´°‘º´±€Æ ñÀ‘î´³Å
€µÆ‘ǍÏÅ €×þœ¦ÏÅ ¥™Ž™ ˜ì°Óò, ‘ªÉÅ Ï´³Å ŠÞ¹° ã€×è ƑÚÅ Ï´±ñÅ ‘ªÇñÅ ¥›À‘ì ¯¨, ‘ª™¯ ¥›×î Ï´±ò ¯®Å ¥›—Àòì þ°Ñ¹³ "Ï´±Ò‘î Àé€ÀÇò ñÀ‘îÀ‘Å" ‡òé‘Ñ.

»í‘Ò´±Ö Ï«¹±Æ‘Ñ °Å ×£‘±Æ‘ÍÖ ƒ¿º¦ ã€×€ã ¥™Žî‘ÕÅ, »Ì´±Æ™Å
ñÀ‘î´þ°‘¨ ‚À´€°ÉÅ —‘èŽòé‘Ñ.

3.2.8 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ̑ÕÅ ˆ€îÆ €µÆ‘Ǎэã‘ÕÅ …¥òºª¥ ‚À »ÌÀ‘«´€° ½´°Ñè ñÀ‘î´±Ö
þÀí˜êÆ ‘Ì«›æ™‘ ƒé™ŽÆþ° ½´°Ñè —œË° À‘—ºÏÅ ½ÌªÆ‘Å.ƒ› ƒ³ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ
þ‘ªº‘ª¦í ½éź‘î—בòì ‡òºþ°‘¨, º°‘Ñ´°±íÅ(word meaning)  º‘¥‘Ò‘Ñ´°±íÅ ÖÒ³
ÓƑѴ°±íÅ (discourse meaning) —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ ¯¥ þ×캑¨€ã™  ‘«‘™ Ï¥Ñã‘ ƒ×эè
‚Ëت¥ ‘Ì«´°‘þÒþÆ ƒ¿ »€ÝÉÅ þµÑ¹³èã³ ‡òº€° ‹Ñ ê³ Ø㙐þבÅ.
—°‘Ö. —º‘Ï㱍‘Ì´±Ö, À™ã³ Šà™›€ã ‚Ì‘Æ¿½¹³, ×í€é ˆà±€«ã‘ א´³,
×íêò —º‘Ïè×€€ã ¬™Åþº‘³, º‘¥Öã‘ŽÆ ×ݙŽÕÅ —œËÉäÕÅ ×ÏÅ Ó€ãþÆ
(discourses) ‚Ì‘Æþׯ¨×³ ‡òì ˜ì×þ°‘¨ › Ã°Ö Ï …Í ‡î —º‘Ïè×€è Ø㛐Å
‡òŽòé‘Ñ. 'Ó' ‡òº³ þº¢Ÿ, …€ÌƑ¥Ö ‡òé ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ ƒ› 'discourse' ‡òé —º‘ÏäÖ
‚¥¿º¨Žòé³. (‘¯ 'Ó´—°‘€' ‡ñÅ œ›´—°‘€ ¸–ÓÖ, þœÑ™¿ºª¦Ï™Å —ºÏź‘Ò‘î€×
…€ÌƑ¥Öã‘þ× ƒÏ¿º€°.)

947. €™Ž€ã ðґ¿ —ºÏ¹±€« ƒìבË
       Ãíº¥ Žã¹° ‡à±€« ‡òº

948. ×íìè
         µ¨×¯ ‰¹±€« µ¨×« —°‘ÞÆ¿
         º¨±€Ì €×ÆÅ º‘´±Æ¿ º¯þº

949. Ã°Ö Ï …Í¿—º‘Ïè ‡òé Äòþé
         ¸×՛ ‘€Ò Àéé¹ °îþ×
         º‘¥Õª ºÇòé€× µ‘¨› ‘€Ò

950. Ã°Ö‡î¿ º¨×³ ¶Òŗº‘à ±Ì¯¦ò
       ƒÆ֗ºî —À‘Þº ƒÆÖ½«Ñ¹ þ°‘þÌ

951.     À‘þƑò þÀÆ ‘¨€é …ҍÃÅ
             þœþƑò þÀÆ €À×€Ì …ҐÃÅ
            þ×¹°ò þÀÆ ²Å½îÖ …ҍÃÅ
             ×Ï«ò þÀÆ —ºÏÀ«Ö …ҍÃÅ
             ÃÖ€Ò Í¤ ÀÏ°Å —µË°—Òî¢
             —œ‘ÖÓÆ Ã€éÆ‘í —œ‘ÖÒÚÅ º¨þÀ

‡òº€×þÆ €×.

ƒ› ±€« ‡î¿º¨×³ €×Æ´±ò ¶Òþ×캑¨è ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ —ºÆÍ¥¿ºª¥‘ÕÅ, Ÿª¥¿º¨×³ À™ã³
Šà™´€° ¶ì´³Å …㶀ҍþãƑÅ. ¹°  ‰¹±€« …㶀ҍ€ã ¶ì´³×îב À‘þƑò
þœþƑò þº‘òé —°Ëכäò ‚ª ‡ñÅ ˜íì ½´°Ñè ˜ìÅ »Ì´±Æ™ÃÅ ÖÒ ñÀ‘îÃÅ ÖÒ.
þÀÕÅ »êþ°‘Ñ ƒ¥´±Ö Ÿª¦Æבì, …èæ€é …×À´€°¿ ºíê þºœ×¹°×Ñ ³ —°Ë×Å ŠÞ¹°€°
¶Ò—îî™ —‘èæÅ ‡òì ˜ê, —°Ë×´€° …×À‘°¿ —º‘Ï㑍 ‚™Ž, ב™ŽíÅ ¹°€î™Å
¿º‘Ò‘î³ ‡òì ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. þÀÕÅ ãØÆÖ ¡´±Ì´±Ö »ò×ÏÀ‘ì ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ:

1039.        Šòþé þ×þé ‡òêÏ º‘Ö×Çò
             Šòê …Æѹ° º‘Ò³ ‚€«Çò
             Š´° ŽÝ×ñÅ ŽÝ´±ÉÅ ‘¯º
             Á™þ‘ò ‚ÇñÅ ¦×€Ì Çòþé

ƒ› º‘Ò‘ŽÆ Ÿ´° ×¿»Ì‘œ¿ —º‘Ï㑍 ‡¹° צ×ÃÅ íé ³–ƗבäƑ þ°‘òìÅ —°Ë×´±ò
‚€«Çò ‘Ì«À‘þ× Š´° ‹Ñ —º¯®Å ‚®Å ƒ€«ŽòéîÑ ‡òì ÓƑѴ°À‘
(discourse meaning) ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ.

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ êÚè …±¿º°í ‚Å —œÒÚè âÀ‘î¢ —œÒڍ㑍, €× —°‘֍‘¿»Æ̑Ö
‡¨´þ°‘°¿º¥,½´°Ñã‘Ö Š³™¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. (ƒ°ò ØÍØí ‘¯ ¦þÆî³: Tolkaappiyam
and the Origins of Tantric and Agamic Psychology,Journal of the Inst.of Asian Studies, Vol. VIII,
No.1,1990)

ƒ°í ¦¿º€¥Æ‘Ë ƒÏ™Žòé º‘Ñ€× ‚ËØ€î œÀ«Ñè Á é¿º‘ —œË±Ï™ ƒï ×эã³
€µÆ‘Ǎ´€° ê³ ‘¯þº‘Å.
 

3.0 œÀ«Ñäò €µÆ‘ǍÅ

 3.3.1 —°‘¥™´±þÒþÆ œÀ«Ñè ½´°Ñ€ã þº‘òì Öґ³, º¯€¥Æ ‘Ò¹—°‘ªþ¥ °ÁÝэþ㑨 Á
—µÏ›ŽÆ —°‘¥Ñ½è …€¥Æ×э㑍ÚÅ °Áݙ ¦äÖ ŠÏ×̑ÚÅ —°òº¨ŽòéîÑ ‡òº€°
ê¿»¥þׯ¨Å. ƒ×Ñè  ƒ¹±Æ‘—×›Å °ê™ Ž¥™Žòé ‹Ñ º¯€¥Æ ±Ì‘Ø¥ À™è »ÍבÚÅ
ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. 'arhus' ‡òéþ×‘Ñ —œ‘Ö ŸþÀÏ´ °ÁÞÖ ×ݛŽòé³. ƒ³ œÀ«´ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ 'Ïò'
'‚ύ°Å' þº‘òé —œ‘íäò ÄÒÀ‘ ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. ƒ› µÅ ‚ËÚ €µÆ‘Ǎ´€°¿ ºíê—Æî, ƒ°€î
‹ÌãÚ µòÀéÇÖ Ø㙐ŠŠòº°‘Å ¸–í鑯¦î°‘™ Ï°¿º¨Å ÿÒþ ‡ñÅ °Ñ™ ¸–þÒ
ºÆòº¨´°¿ º¨Å. þׯ¨Á¥´±Ö 'Ï›Ò¢—œ¿½' ‡ñÅ »êþ°‘Ñ º¯€¥Æ ¸–ÕÅ »éÚÅ ºÆòº¨´°¿º¨Å.
ÿÒþ™ œÀƱבÌ בÀîÃï×Ñ ƒÆíêÆ Á¢ é¿º‘î º€ÝÆþ×‘Ñ …€Ì …¯¨ ‡òì êŽþé‘Å.
‚ÇñÅ ³ À¬¿»Ìב㠵€¥ÇÖ ƒÏ™, °€î´ °Áâ º¨´±ÉÅ Ø㙎ÉÅ —ºÏÀ€Ý¿ ½Ò×Ñ —º‘.þ×
þœ‘ÀŸ¹°Ìî‘Ñ ‡à±Æ …€Ì€Æ Šª¦þÆ ƒ› œÀ«Ñäò €µÆ‘Ǎ Ø㙍Š—œÖÕÅ.

3.3.2 ÿÒþ °ÏÀÚ€Ì œÏ™´±Ö Á ØÍב ºÒ×€¿ »é¿½™€ã ×Í€œº¨´±, ‡Üבì
ƒÜבé‘î ‡Öґ »é؍æÅ ³™ÃÅ ³òºÃÅ ¶€é¹°°‘ ƒÏ™Žòé³ ‡òº€° …«Ñ´±Æ »ò,
°íÍÆ ÀϹ°‘ œÀ«œÀÆ´±ò ¦¿º€¥è Ø㙍¿º¨Žòéî.

 þºÑ°í ÏÅ»¬°‘Å ƒ€× ¿»¬
 ²Ñ°íÍÆ ±ÍþƑ ÀϹ±€× €×
 ‹Ñ°Ö —°äþב¨ Šà™Å ƒ€× …¯¥‘Ñ
 þºÑ´°  »¬Éè »é×‘Ñ —ºÍ±òºÃíþé
    (ÿÒ.116)

»é¿»î‘Ò‘Å »¬€ã —×òì ³òºÅ —¨´³ ƒòºþÀ ½™´ °Ï×î ‹Ñ°Ö —°ä°Ö µÖ—Ò‘à™Å
‡î¿º¨Å Äòì ×ÞÀéè ‡î¿º¨Å þ°—º‘à³, »éØ´ ³òº›è Àî¿»¬è ×Þ ‡à×î ‡ñ›
Ï´±Ö Àþî‘ÀÏ´³×À‘ ƒ€× ºÌ¿º¨Žòéî ‡òº€°™ ‘¯. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ Àþî‘ÀÏ´³×¢ ¹°€î
œÀ«Ñã³ µò—‘€¥Æ‘ÚÅ »í‘Ò´±Ö ´°Ñã‘Ö —ºÍ³Å ×ãљ¿ºª¥ ‹Ñ ³€éƑÚÅ
—°ÍŽòé³. '±Í¨Å' 'ìº¤œÄÒÅ' þº‘òé Žâ«™ ¸–íäò ¹°€î þº‘™þ㑨 Š´³
×Ï×°‘ÚÅ —°ÍŽòé³. ƒ€× °ï´°ïƑ ÀϹ°‘‘³, ˜ª¥‘þ× €ÀÉÅ ‡òº³ ƒ×эã‘Ö
×í½ì´°¿º¨Å Šò鑐Å. °€î …€ÌƑÍÆÑ ƒÜבì Ø㙐בÑ:
 

" ±ÍþƑ ÀϹ³ ‡î™ ˜ª¨ÀϹ°‘™ ˜êƳ; ƒ€× Äòì› ˜¦Æ ×ÞÆòê´ °ï´°ïþÆ ¶òì »¬ ²Ñ¿ºî ×Öҗ×ò ì«Ñ´°í. ‡ò€î? µò£‘î Àª¨þÀ ÀϹ°‘Çò ³ þ°‘òêÆ —º‘àþ°
Ù¨íþé‘î‘°Ö þׯ¨Å; òêÉŠ؀îÆ‘Ö ¶àÅ »¬ ðґÇîÚÅ ŠÞ°Ö þׯ¨Å. ƒï Àƙ×êþ× ª¦í™ ‘Ì«À‘°Ö þׯ¨Å; þׯ¥þ× »é œÀƛã‘ŽÆ ŠþÌ Ã¦Ú€¥Æ×í€é …«Ñ°ÕÅ ª¦í™ ‘Ì«À‘°Ö þׯ¨Å; ×íêòº‘Ö ºíêòêÉ«Ñ°Ö ª¦í™ ‘Ì« Àò—éïò, ºò æڀ¥´°‘ŽÆ ‚ύ° œÀÆÃÅ ºíêòêÉ«ÏÁ¥´³ Ùª¦íþ³×‘‘°‘Å;  ‚°Ò‘Ö µí‘ª™ þ×é‘î µÖÒêÚÅ Á€Æ‘Ë Ùª¦í þ³×‘‘°‘Å. ‚Çò ƒÜØ̯¨þÀ €ÀÉÅ, µÖ—Ò‘à™Å Á€Æ‘Å »é—×ïò ÝŽ°òì. ‡ò€î? »ê—°‘Ï ¶â¢ÉÁòê µÖÒêÚÅ µí‘ªÉÅ ŠÏ›þ ¶â°þÒ µÖ—Ò‘à™Å ‚°Óò ‡ò."

µÖÒêÚ ŠÞÆ µí‘ª ƒÖ€Ò; þÀÕÅ ê¹³ —°ä¹° »òîþÌ µÖ—Ò‘à™Å ×ÏÅ ‡òº°‘Ö ÄòìþÀ
ŠÏ›þ þׯ¥íº‘Ò°‘Žòé³ ‡òìÅ ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. ƒÅÄòìÅ Šòê€î¿ ºíê Šòì ×Ï×°‘´
—°òº¨Žòé³. œ‘Í´±ÌÀ‘ŽÆ Šà™´±í ƒ×эè ðò€À —‘¨¿º€°™ ‘¯. ƒ³ ×Ìґíì
é¿½Á™ ‹Ñ ˜í鑐Šƒ³.

3.3.3 ƒï µò£‘îÅ ‡òº³ Ƒ³ ‡òì Ø㙍¿½€ÇÖ, ×í€é —°‘֍‘¿»Æ €µÆ‘Ǎ …ì¿»ÆÖ
¹€°þƑ¨ â¯¥×‘ì ×Í€œ¿º¨´³Žòé‘Ñ: "†î´€° ƒòê …Ç̑±Æ …è—º‘Ïèè °‘ò
µ›«Ñ°Ö" ‡òì ÿÒþÆ‘Ñ ˜é, …€ÌƑÍÆÑ °€î Ø͙Å þº‘³ ¹°¿ —º‘Ϫ€ã:
º¤œ‘´±‘ÆÅ, ì×€—º‘Ïè, ‡à×€¿—º‘Ïè, ‡¯×€¿—º‘Ïè, Šòº³×€¿ —º‘Ïè ‡òŽòé‘Ñ.
ƒ×í€é ƒòñÅ —°äב™Åþº‘³, º¤œ‘´±‘ÆÅ ‡òº³ ž×‘´±‘ÆÅ,ž×‘´±‘ÆÅ °ÏÀ‘´±‘ÆÅ
°ÏÀ‘´±‘ÆÅ ‚‘œ‘´±‘ÆÅ ‡òñÅ ‰¹³ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ƒ×íþ鑨 ‘ÒÃÅ ˜¥ ‚é‘Žòé³. ˆà×€
‡òº³: ž×ò ž×ò ‚¢Ì×Å œÃ×ÌÅ ¶Ñ¢œÌÅ ª¨ Ù¨ ‚ŽÆ€× ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. ‡¯×€¿º¨×€°ÉÅ
ƒÜבþé °ï´³ ºª¦ÆÓ¨ŽòéîÑ: °€Ò×ò ¸–Ö —º‘Ïè ã€× ÃÆí ƒÓ›Å œ‘Í´±ÌÅ ºÒÅ
‚Ž€×. Šòº³×€ ‡ñÅþº‘³ þÀí˜é¿ºª¥ ˆà —º‘Ϫþ㑨 µÖØ€îÉÅ ²Ø€îÉÅ þœÑ™¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ› 'ø±‘ÆÅ' ‡ñÅ ×¥—À‘Þ¢ —œ‘Ö °Áâ '—À˗º‘Ïè' ‡òº±ò ×¥—À‘Þ ‚™À‘Å.
ƒÜבé‘î …ª—º‘Ϫ€ã †îÁòê ê°í ÏØƑ —‘è㿺¨×îþ× ã€×è ‡î¿ºª¨
â¯¥×‘ì €× Ø㙍ÚÅ º¨Žòéî.

 ‘¯¥ÕÅ ÖÒþ° Æã€× ‘¯¥òÃò
 ¾ò¥€×Å —º‘êÀîÅ ×± ½¯¬Æ
 À‘¯¥ Àî¿ºÍ Æ‘Æ› þ×Ò
 µ‘¯¥Å Í€×ÆÑ …Ï×Å µ¯¬î‘Ë
    (ÿÒ. 118)

‘¯¥Ö, ‘¯¥Ö Öґ°³ ‡òé×‘ì ã€×€ã א´³, ‘¯¥€Ò ºÝØ€îÆ‘Ö Ãòþº ‡Ë±Æ
‰¹³×€¿ —º‘ꙍ‘ªÉÅ À‘î°™ ‘ªÉÅ ×±£‘î™ ‘ªÉÅ ½¯¬Æ´°‘þÒ À‘¯°
ÀÍƑƣ‘î™ ‘ªÉÅ þ×Ò£‘î™ ‘ªÉÅ ‡òé×‘ì —‘㿺¨Žòé³. …€ÌƑÍÆÑ ƒ×í€é
ƒòñÅ ƒÜבì Ø㙐בÑ:

" ƒï, —º‘ꙍ‘ªÆ‘׳ ¯ ðÓÆ —º‘êã‘þÒ ¶Ò ðÓÆ ½é¿—º‘Ïèºíê¿ »é™Å £‘îÀ‘Å. À‘î°™ ‘ªÆ‘׳, ƒòº ³òº ØÆÖ½è —º‘Ï㑍ÚÅ ¶€îÚ Ã°ÓÆ
êÚè —º‘Ï㑍ÚÅ »é™Å £‘îÀ‘Å. ×±£‘‘ªÆ‘׳, ×± £‘î‘×Ì­ÆÅ ÙÍƑ¹°Ì‘ÆÅ ‡ñÅ À€é¿½ Ø€îäò ÞבñÅ ¥™´°‘ñÅ »éÑ Àî´³ ¶€î´° —º‘π㿠ºíê Á™¿ —ºÏŽÆ Ø㙍´°°‘Ž¿ »é™Å £‘îÅ. þ×Ò £‘î™ ‘ªÆ‘׳: £î‘×Ì­ÆÅ °Íœî‘×Ì­ÆÅ þÀ‘ÿÆÅ ¹°Ì‘ÆÅ ‡òñÅ ‘± Ø€îè ŠÞ×é™ —ª¥×Þ¿ »é¿º°‘ŽÆ ž×ò ðÓÆ ‡Öґ¿ —º‘Ï荀ãɊٍ‘Ò ¶â¢€ãÉÅ ÏØÉŠÀéÉÅ °€¥ÉÅ ƒòê, —µ‘¦¿—º‘à±þÒ ¯¨ —‘è×°‘Ë  Ø㙍´±íþ °€Ò×Ìź‘Æ Ø㙍 À¥´°‘ŽÆ Ï™¥Úäî³ ¥Úè £‘îÀ‘Å. „¯¨  Ø㙍—Àòº³, Ø€îÇò ÿ™´±í ˆíé×‘ì …ÇÍò¯ º¦¿º¦Æ‘Ë Á™´ þ°‘òìÅ ê—×‘ä ‡ò."

3.3.4 ‘¯¥Ö ŠÞ¹° »é×í€é ¨´° º‘¥ÓÖ ƒÜבì Ø㙐בÑ.

 ¶€îÚ Âª¨«ÑÚ †Å þµÑ°Ï
 ½€îÚ þœÑ ®€À —º‘ËÇò€À —ÀËÉ€Ì
 Ã€î×Ñ °Å ‚À—À‘ÞÉÀ‘ —Àòì
 €îÆî ‘ªƒÖ ã€× ‰¹³þÀ

»Ì´±Æ™´±í þ×é‘ŽÆ ã€×è ¶€îÚÅ, ª¨«ÑÚÅ, …×€À ‡¨´³™‘ª¨Žòé Ýþ‘¨ ˜¦Æ
ñÀ‘îÃÅ, —º‘Ë ˜é‘€ÀÉÅ —ÀËþÆ ˜ì°ÕÀ¥Æ Ãï×Ñ ±Ï×‘Ë ÀÒѹ°ÏäÆ ‚À —À‘ÞÉÅ ‚Å
‡òì ˜é¿º¨Žòé  ‰¹³ ‡òºî. ƒ×í€é¿ ºíêÆ ØÍבî Ø㙍´€° …€ÌÇÖ ¯¨—‘è.
ƒ› µ‘Å —ºÍ³Å Ï° þׯ¦Æ³ œÀ«Ñè °ÏÅ Á ØÍ×‘î ‘¯¥Ö Ø㙍þÀ. °ÁÝ þÀÕÅ ƒ¹±Æ
—ÀËÆêÚ ×ÌÒíêÖ Á é¿º‘î ƒ¥´€° ƒ¹° Ø㙍Š»¦´³èã³. »í‘Ò´±Ö ƒ´°€Æ×í€é
þƑ™ ‘ª, ؤ£‘î™ ‘ª ×£‘‘ª ‡ò—éÖґŠ°ÁÝ À™è €œ×Å º¨´±ÉèãîÑ.
ƒ×э㳠×± £‘‘ªÆ‘±, ¥¿½Ï ‘¯ ±é›ã‘Å.(telepathy, transductive perception)
€œ×´±Ö  º¯þ¥ ºÇÕÅ ¸°ÖØÞ¿ º‘Ñ€×Çò »êþ°‘Ñ Ø㙍—ÀòìÅ —‘èãґÅ. »í‘Ò´±Ö ´°
—ºÏÀ™ã‘ÕÅ —ºÍ³Å ‚˹³ ×ãљ¿ºª¥ ‹Ñ ³€éÉÀ‘Å.

4.0 œÀ«´±Ö —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´ °‘™Å

3.4.1 °ÁÝ¢ œÀ«Ñè ‡òº‘Ñ ºÝ¹°ÁÝэäÖ ‹Ñ œ‘Ì‘þÌ ‡òì —°ÍŽòé³. °ÁÝ¢ œÀ«Ñè
½´°Ñ€ã¿ þº‘òì ƒ€¥þÆ ×¹³ þœÑ¹°×Ñè ÖÒ ‡òþé ¶€î™ÚÅ ×ώòé³. °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îþƑ¨
Ü×ãÚ —µÏ™À‘î ‹Ñ Šíì€À€Æ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. þÀÕÅ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ ÀÌ»ò ‹Ñ Ò ˜ì€ã
ƒ×эþã ×ãÑ´³ ¹° —ºÏÅ ÀÌ»í ‚™Å þœÑ´°×э㑍ÚÅ —°ÍŽòéîÑ.—°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ ‘Ò´±Ö
º‘Ñ¿ºîэþ㑨 ‡¯«¿ºª¨ —ºÍ³Å À™ã‘Ö À±™¿ºª¥ ê×Ñè ‡î¿º¨þבÍò ×Þ´þ°‘òé֍þã
ƒ×Ñè ‡òì ‡¯«ÚÅ þ°‘òìŽòé³.
 ƒ×Ñè ‚ÀÅ ‡òì —‘è׳ ÀÌ»ÆÓÖ Ø㙍¿º¨Å Ã°Ö ¸–þÒƑÅ. —º‘ËºÇґ° —ÀËÉ€Ì Ã€î×Ñ
‡òº³Å, Ø€îÇò ÿ›Ž Øã›ŽÆ êØò Àî×ò ‡òº³Å þ×éÖÒ. 'Øã›ŽÆ êÚ" ‡òºþ° ƒ›
ƒòñÅ ØÍב ×±£‘™ ‘ªã‘ ÀîºÍƑƙ‘ªã‘ —‘è㿺¨Žòé³ ‡îÚÅ
—°ÍŽòé³. 'Ø€îÇò ÿ›Ž' ‡òºþ° ƒ› À€é¿º‘ŽÆ ‚×Ì­ÆÅ þº‘òé€× Ýòì ¶òì ½³¿½³
¸€ÝÚè —ºíì  ¯¥êƑ°î ¯¨ —°ä×°‘Å.

3.4.2 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±Ö ºÒ ƒ¥›äÖ ê×э€ã¿ ºíêÆ ê¿½è …¯¨. º‘€ÒƳ ½éî‘ŽÆ ×‘€´
±€«€Æ¿ ºíê ˜é×¹°×Ñ, "°‘ØÖ —‘耍´ °´°Å ˜í€é¿ º‘º¥ Á±¿ º¨´°Ö" ‡òì €°
Ø͙Å þº‘³, ê×э€ã ˆ€îþƑ€ÌØ¥ €¥—‘¨´³ é¿»´³ ê¿»¨Žòé‘Ñ:

1021. ì×€¿ ºª¥ º‘Ñ¿ºî¿ º™ÃÅ
         ‰×€ ÀÌ»ò ÌœÑ º™ÃÅ
         ƒÏÄòì ÀÌ»ò ˆþî‘Ñ º™ÃÅ
         ÀìØÖ —œË± Ä×€™ ‘ÒÃÅ
         —µêÇò ‚íêÆ ê×ò þ°ÆÃÅ
         µ‘ÓÏ ×ݙŽò °‘º°¿ º™ÃÅ
         º‘Òê ÀÌ»ò —º‘쵄 ¯®Å
         €î¶€Ò ×€—Æ‘¨ ‚›—à ×€Ç
         —°‘€¶€Ò —ºíé³ ‡òÀî‘Ñ ½Ò×Ñ.

ƒ› íéÀíé Šà™¢žÒэ㑍, ÀìØÖ —œË± …€¥Æ×э㑍, þÀÕŠÀé—Æ‘¨ —µê»€ÝƑ³
íéÀíì Ä×€™ ‘Ò´€°ÉÅ —°äב, ‚ ‡±Ñ‘Ò´€°ÉÅ …«Ñ¹³´ —°ä¹°×э㑍 ê×эè
±âŽò逰 —°‘Ö. ê¿»¨×€°™ ‘¯. ƒ¿ºº¦¿ºª¥ ±Í‘Ò £‘î´€° ºà°é´ °Ï×þ°
œÀ«Ñä€¥ ×±£‘î Àî¿€ºÆ‘Æ ‘ªã‘Žòéî ‡òº³ —º‘Ϲ³×þ°.

 þÀÕÅ í»ÆÓÖ ×э㳠œÃ°‘Æ¿ º¬ÉÅ Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³.

1099. ÞØñÅ ×ÌØñÅ ¶âØñÅ ×ޗ‘ã
         µÖÒ€× …€Ì´°ÕÅ ÖÒ€× ¦°ÕÅ
         —œØә ÍÆ ×‘Å ‡òº

1100. —œ‘ÖÓƙ ŽãØ ê×љÅ …Í´þ°

1458. º‘Ñ¿º‘Ñ ê×Ñ ‡òê×Ñ ŽãØ
         ƑљÅ ×€ÌÆ‘Ñ Æ‘¿—º‘¨ ½«Ñ¹þ°

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ —°‘¯¨¿º¬€ã º¤œ œÁ± ‡òì ˜ê ×í€é Ø㙐Š׀ÇÖ þÀÏÀ¹±Ì ½Ì‘«¢
—œËÉè Šò€é …€ÌƑÍÆÑ °Ï×Ñ:

 "Ãòñ´ °ãÚ þµ‘™Ž Ãò½»ò »ÍÆ¢ —œÖґÑ
 ƒò—œ‘ÕÅ »éÑ° À™Å ƒ°´°î ×òê¢ —œ‘ÖґÑ
 ò½ÿ´ ³Ç€Ì ‹Å» ã×Áò ³¯º‘Ñ ƑљÅ
 ³ò½é™ þ‘¥Ö €×´°Ö Àқ€ã ³é´°Ö —œÖґÑ"

‚ ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ Šíì€À™ ˜ìè ºÒØÏ¿»ñÅ, ØÍפ ƒ°€î 晎òþé‘Å. ¨´°°‘ ×ÌØϙÅ
€œ×´±Ö €µÆ‘ǍŠ‡ñÅ º¥Ò´±Ö, œÀ«Ñäò °‘™´€° ê³ ‘¯þº‘Å.

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