¦Áö¸ñ¼¡Õõ ¦÷Á¡É¢Â ¸¡ñð(Kant)  ±ýÀ¡Õõ


¦ºýÈ Á¼Ä¢ý ¦¾¡¼÷¡¸ ­ýÛõ º¢Ä, ÍÕì¸Á¡¸. Ţ⚸ áÂôÀ¼§ÅñÊ ŢºÂò¨¾ º¢È¢Ð §¸¡Ê¸¡ðÎŧ¾ ­íÌ ¸ìÜÊÂÐ. ¦Åû¨ÇÂ÷¸û ¾òÐÅî º¢ó¾¨É ¸¢§Ãì¸î º¢ó¾¨É ÅÆ¢ Åó¾¦Å¡ýÚ ±ýÈ¡Öõ Rene Descartes ±ýÈ À¢ÃïÍ ¾òÐÅ »¡É¢ìÌô À¢ÈÌ ¾É즸ýȧš÷  ¾É¢òÐÅõ ¦ÀüÚ ÅÇÃò¦¾¡¼í¸¢ÂÐ. ­¾¢Öõ ­ÃñÎ À¢Ã¢×¸û: empricists ±ýÚõ rationalists   ±ýÚõ.  À¢Ã¡ïÍ ¦÷ÁÉ¢ §À¡ýÈ  ³§Ã¡ôÀ¢Â ¿¡Î¸Ç¢ø rationalism  ¦ºÆ¢ò¾¢Õì¸, í¸¢§ÄÂ÷ 𺢠¿¡Î¸Ç¢ø empiricism ±ýÀ§¾ ¦ÀâÐõ §À¡üÈôÀð¼ À¡ÃõÀâÂÁ¡¸¢Å¢ð¼Ð. ­ó¾ empiricism ¿¡ò¾¢¸ ÀñÒ¸¨Çô ¦ÀüÚ ÅÇÃ, rationalism  ¬ò¾¢¸ô ÀñÒ¸¨Çô ¦ÀüÚ ÅÇ÷óÐûÇÐ §À¡ø ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼î º¢ó¾¨É ³§Ã¡ôÀ¢Â rationalism ±ýÈ À¡ÃõÀâÂò§¾¡Î ´òÐô§À¡ÅÐ ÁðÊÄ¡Ð ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ ¸¡Äò¾¢§Ä§Â «¾¨ÉÔõ Á¢ïº¢ ¦ºýÚŢ𼨾Ôõ ¿¡õ «È¢Â§ÅñÎõ. «¾¨É  º¢È¢Ð «È¢Âò ¾Õŧ¾ ­õÁ¼Ä¢ý §¿¡ì¸õ.

ÀÄ ¾òÐÅ áü¸¨Ç ¦÷Áý ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ø ±Ø¾¢Â Immanuel Kant ¾ÉÐ §¸¡ðÀ¡Î¸ðÌ µ÷ «È¢Ó¸Á¡¸ ¿øÄ µ÷ º¢È¢Â á¨Ä " Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics " ±ýÈ ¾¨ÄôÀ¢ø ±Ø¾¢É¡÷. «¾ÉÐ «È¢Ó¸ ¯¨Ã¢ø Robert Paul Wolff  ±ýÀ¡÷ ­ùÅ¡Ú ÜÚ¸¢ýÈ¡÷.

" The key to Kant's theory is the epistemological reversal which he called his "Copernican Revolution". Previous philosophers had all supposed that the aim in cognition was to make the mind conform to the independen world of objects. But on that assumption, we could never be sure that the mind had succeeded in conforming itself CORRECTLY to the objects. As Descartes argued in the First Meditations, our supposed knowledge might be a dream; and as Hume had pointed out, even if we perceive real events, we could never know with any certainty what their causes and effects were. In short, so long as knowledge requires that the mind adjust itself to the object, we seem doomed to a frustrating skepticism.

 ­¾¨Éô §À¡ýÚ ¾¡ý  ®Ý÷ ºîº¢¾¡Éó¾ ÍÅ¡Á¢¸û ¾ÁÐ §Å¾¡ó¾ ­Ä츽ò¾¢ø ¿Å¢ýÚ, ¯ûǨ¾ ¯ûÇÅ¡Ú «È¢ÂÓÊ¡Ð; ¦º¸õ ±ùÅ¡§È¡ º¢ó¨¾ «ùÅñ½õ, º¢ó¨¾ ±ùÅ¡§È¡ ¦º¸õ «ùÅñ½õ  ±ýÈÅ¡Ú ´ýÈ¢¨É ´ýÚ ÀüÈ¢§Â ÅÕõ ±ýÚ ÜÈ¢ ±ó¾ò ¦¾¡¼÷Òõ ­øÄ¡Ð ÐÁ¢òРŢÎŧ¾ ²üÈÐ ±ýÀ¡÷.  ¢Ûõ Kant «ôÀÊî º¢ó¾¢ì¸Å¢ø¨Ä.

§Á§Ä ÌÈ¢ôÀ¢¼ôÀð¼ «ýÀ÷ ¦¾¡¼÷¸¢ýÈ¡÷.:
" But suppose we consider the opposite hypothesis for a moment. Instead of the mind conforming to the object, what if the object conforms itself to the mind? Could it be that the mind carries within itself certain forms or structures which it imposes on any object that apppears within its field of experience ? Could space and time, causality, and even thinghood, be mind-imposed conditions of anything being an object of experience?

 ¸¡Äõ ­¼õ  ¸¡Ã½¸¡Ã¢ÂòÐÅõ ¸Õô¦À¡ÕÇòÐÅõ  §À¡ýȨŠÒÄý Ѹ÷¡ø «È¢ÂôÀÎÅÉ «øÄ, «ó¾ ÒÄý Ѹ÷¸Ç¢ý ÀñÒ¸¨Ç§Â «Ú¾¢¦ºöž¡ö ²ü¸É§Å ­ÕôÀÉ ±ýÚ ¦¸¡ûÇôÀÎŨ¾ì ¸¡ñ¸. ­¨¾ò¾¡§É ¿õ ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢Â÷ ­Ãñ¼¡Â¢ÃòÐ ÓýëÚ ñθðÌ Óý§À ÜÈ¢î ¦ºýÚûÇ¡÷?
                949. Ó¾ø¸Õ ¯Ã¢ô¦À¡Õû ±ýÈ ãý§È
                        ÑÅÖí ¸¡¨Ä ӨȺ¢Èó ¾É§Å
                        À¡¼Öð À¢ýȨŠ¿¡Îí ¸¡¨Ä
 

              950.     Ó¾¦ÄÉô ÀÎÅÐ ¿¢Äõ¦À¡Ø ¾¢ÃñÊý
                        ­Âø¦ÀÉ ¦Á¡Æ¢À ­ÂøÒ½÷ó §¾¡§Ã

Ó¾ø ¦À¡Õû ±ýÈ¡Öõ  ¡áÖõ §¾¡üÚÅ¢ì¸ôÀ¼¡¾ «¿¡¾¢ô ¦À¡Õû ±ýÈ¡Öõ ´ýÚ¾¡ý. ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢ÂÕìÌ «¿¡¾¢¦À¡ÕÇ¡¸ ¸¡ÄÓõ ­¼Óõ  ­ÅüÈ¢ý ­ÂøÒõ ­Õó¾¢Õ츢ýÈÉ. ¦¾öÅí¸¨Ç ¸Õô¦À¡Õû¸Ç¢ø «¼ì¸¢Å¢Î¸¢ýÈ¡÷. ¸ ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢Ââý «¿¡¾¢ô ¦À¡ÕÇ¢Âø Kant «Å÷¸Ç§¾¡Î ´òÐ ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ.  É¡ø ³§Ã¡ôÀ¢Âî º¢ó¾¨É¢ø ­Ð À¾¢¦Éð¼¡õ  áüÈ¡ñʧľ¡ý  ÁÄÃ,  ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼î º¢ó¾¨É¢§Ä¡ ­Ãñ¼¡Â¢Ãõ ñθðÌ Óý§À ¿ýÈ¡¸ò §¾¡ýȢŢð¼Ð. ­¾üÌô À¢ÈÌ Â¢ÃòÐ ³áÚ ñθû º¢ó¾¨É ÅÇ÷ìÌô À¢È§¸ ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ §¾¡ýÚ¸¢ýÈ¡÷. ­¨¼§Â ÀüÀÄ ÅÇ÷¸û. ¾¢ÕÅûÙÅ÷ Ó¾ü¦À¡Õû ¾¢À¸Åý ±ý¸¢ýÈ¡÷. ¾¢Õãħá, À¾¢Â¢¨Éô §À¡Ä ÀÍì¸Ùõ À¡ºí¸Ùõ «¿¡¾¢ ±ý¸¢ýÈ¡÷. ¢ý Kant «Å÷¸û À¾¢Â¡¸¢Â ­¨ÈÅ¨É Àáì¸üÀ¨É (transcendental imagination) ±ýÀ¾¢ø «¼ìÌÅЧÀ¡ø §¾¡ýÚ¸¢ýÈÐ.

Kant «Å÷¸ÇÐ §¸¡ðÀ¡ðÊø µ÷ «ÊôÀ¨¼ ̨ÈÀ¡ÎûÇÐ. ­í̾¡ý ¿õ ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ ¦ÀâÐõ ¯¾×¸¢ýÈ¡÷. KantÅ÷¸Ç¢¼õ ±ýÉ Ì¨È?
" But it is an accomplishment purchased at a price. If the mind imposes its own subjective forms on nature, then the nature it knows cannot be a realm of things as they are in themselves: it must be merely a realm of things as they appear to us.. Inshort, our knowledge must be limited to APPEARANCES, REALITY is forever obscured from our view."
 

­ì¸ÕòÐ «È¢Å¢É¡ø «È¢ó¾ ¡×õ «ºòÐ ±ýÈ ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ ¸Õò¦¾¡Î ´òÐÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ¢Ûõ ­ó¾ ºòÐ ±ýÚõ «ºòÐ ±ýÚõ Å¢ÇíÌõ «È¢×¸ðÌ §ÅÈ¡¸  º¢ÅºòÐ ­Õ츢ýÈÐ «Ð¸¡Ä ¯½÷×õ ­¼×½÷×õ ¸¼ó¾ À¡÷¨ÅÂüÈ À¡÷¨ÅìÌ ¯Ã¢ÂÐ ±ýÚ ÜÈ¢ ¦Áö¸ñ¼¡÷ ­ó¾ À¢Ã¨É¨Â ¾£÷츢ýÈ¡÷. ­¾üÌ ¯¾×ÅÐ ­¨ÈÅý ¸¡ð¼ò¾¡ý ýÁ¡ì¸û ¸¡ñ¸¢ýÈÉ ±ýÀÐ. ­ó¾ ¸¡ðÎ ´Îí¸ «¨Å ¸¡½¡Ð §À¡Ìõ, «È¢× ¡ÐÁ¢ýÈ¢ «ï»¡É ­ÕÇ¢ø Å¢Øõ. ­¨ÈÅý ¸ñ§½¡Î ¸ñ½¡¸ ¿¢ýÚ À¡÷¨Å¸¨Ç ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Âô À¡÷¨Å áÄ¢Âô À¡÷¨Å ѾĢÂô À¡÷¨Å ±ý¦ÈøÄ¡õ ÅÇ÷òÐ ÓÊÅ¢ø §¿¡ì¸¡Ð §¿¡ì¸Ä¡¸¢Â À¡÷¨ÅÂüÈ À¡÷¨Å¨Â ¿ø¸¢ ¯ûǨ¾ ¯ûÇÅ¡Ú ¸¡½î ¦ºö¸¢ýÈ¡ý. ­ó¾ ÓÊÅ¡É À¡÷¨ÅÂüÈ À¡÷¨Å¢ø «ó¿¢Âõ À¢ġЧÀ¡¸, «Ð¦ÅÛõ ÍðÊø¨Ä ¸§Å ¸ñʾ ¸¡Ä×½÷×õ ¾¢¨ºÔÚ ¦ÅÇ¢Ô½÷×õ ­ø¨Ä. ¸ ͼÕõ »¡É¦ÁøÄ¡õ Á¡Ú¸¢ýÈ ¾¢Èò¾Ð «øÄÅ¡¸¢ ¦Áö»¡ÉÁ¡¸¢ýÈÐ.

­Ð¾¡ý ¦Áö»¡Éõ ±ýÚ ­ýÈÇ×õ ¦Åû¨ÇÂ÷¸û «È¢Â¡§¾ ­Õ츢ýÈÉ÷ ±ý§È ¿¢¨É츢ý§Èý.

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