Lexical Correspondences between Sumerian and Dravidian


                                DrK.Loganathan, Universiti Sains Malaysia


(Part of the paper originally published in the Journal of of the Inst. of Asian Studies, Chennai March 1989)

Introduction
 
The last few decades have seen some important advances made in unfolding the mystery surrounding the prehistory of the Dravidian speakers in India. Evidence are accumulating to show that there are close linkages between the present day Dravidian speakers and those ancients who established remarkable civilizations in the Indus, ancient Persia and in the valleys of Tigris-Euphrates, called respectively Melluha, Elam and Sumer. The claim David W. McAlpin 91974, 1975) that the ancient Elam is cognate with Dravidian seems to be have been well received by scholars. While uncertainties still surround the decipherment of the Indus script , Walter A.Fairservis Jr. (1986) concludes, after a careful consideration of a variety of factors, that Dravidian remains the best possible candidate for the Harappan language.

Another conjecture that further strengthens the above hypothesis comes from J.V.Kinnier Wilson(1986). He claims that the Harappans and Sumerians were in fact the same people, that the Sumerians were in fact INDO-SUMERIANS, a small group of people who probably separated from the parent stock, the Harappans, settled in Sumeria and began to develop independently.

Now in addition to the above thesis of Indo-Sumerian, we shall propose here what can be called the thesis of Sumero-Dravidians; that sometime after the second millennium B.C. when Sumer was sacked by Hammurabi and taken over by the semitic speaking people who lived initially in Akkad, a substantial number of Sumerians came to India particularly the extreme South and today constitute the basic population of the speakers of Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Tulu and other  S.Dravidian languages and were probably the people who established the Sangam Culture around the period 800 B.C to 300 A.D . Evidences in favour of Sumero-Dravidian thesis are accumulating.

In 1975, we have shown the existence of remarkable lexical correspondences between Sumerian and Dravidian (particularly S.Dravidian) for more than 200 lexical items. In 1982, it was shown that a line occurring in "Lamentations over the Destruction of Ur" transliterated and translated by S.N Kramer points to the possibility of the existence of an Academy very much like the Tamil Sagkam of the historical period even in Sumeria in those ancient days. There are also many similarities in literary conventions, stylistic features, metaphors and similes which when sufficiently well documented would constitute strong evidences for the thesis we are proposing here. We should also mention here that Hannah Fane (1980) appears to subscribe to this thesis as well. On the basis of numerous archeological evidences she tries to identify the Nilgiri Hills as the location known as "Turkish" to the Sumerians, the furthest trading post in the route: Ur-Elam-Makkan- Meluhha-Turkish. If this is accepted, the possibility of at least some Sumerians settling in the deep South around the first or second millennium B.C could not be ruled out.
In the present paper, we propose to furnish additional evidences for the above thesis . The linguistic, literary and cultural similarities are so striking that thesis seems to essentially sound. The problem is mainly that of documentation. Since this area of study has not still attracted the attention of many scholars, a preliminary attempt is made here with the limited resources at our disposal with the hope that it would attract the attention of the relevant authorities who would then initiate more systematic studies of this sort.

We have taken for analysis a single  Sumerian text: Nin- me-sar-ra, transliterated and translated by W.Hallo & J. Van Dijk(1968) and published with an extensive commentary and analysis of the text from a number of angles. The published text also includes a glossary that turned out to be very useful for the present study. For it includes a number of Akkadian equivalents, some obviously borrowings from Sumerian(e.g sir-ku & Ak. sir-kugu) and some  with no such relationships.

Akkadian, though enormously influenced by Sumerian, remains a distinct language belonging to the Semitic family with a large range of independent lexical items. What impressed us in the study of this text are the following:

(i) the essentially Tamilian character of the text. On reading and understanding it with the help of the translations and commentary, one could feel intuitively that the language is essentially an archaic form of Tamil, a form of Tamil from which Tamil of the Sangam epoch must have evolved.

(ii) The presence of numerous Akkadian words and their derivatives and the remarkable similarity that exists between Akkadian and Telugu in word morphology. The Akkadian terms also seem to range from ordinary terms to the technical vocabulary in astrnomy, music, medicine and such other aspects of higher culture.

The present article reports only part of the study and is concerned mainly with the lexical correspondences and related issues. The sample of sentences with remarkable similarity in meaning andf syntactic structure that is given below also clearly indicates correspondences in noun and verb morphology and syntactic rules of an intimate kind. Studies on these aspects will be published in the future. The text contains altogether 153 lines divided into eighteen parts with each line having a definite metrical structure. Below we give a small sample of these lines that seem to be quite easily intuitable as archaic Tamil. The meaning and numbering follow that of the original text as published. A Tamil derivative is also given with minimal changes to the original to facilitate the grasping of the Tamil character of the Sumerian originals. The order of formatives in the verbs is changed in the Tamil equivalent to correspond more closely to Old Tamil. The verb morphology, it must be mentioned, presents many problems the solutionds to which will require more extensive comparative studies.

Sample of Sumerian Sentences Similar to Old Tamil

1. nin-me-sar-ra u-dal-la-e-a
(Lady of all me's, respelndent light)
¿¢ý ¦Áö º÷Å ´û ¦¾ûÇ¢Â

2. me-mu-il me-su-zu-se mu-e-la
(You have picked up the me's, you have hung the me's on your hand)
¦Áö §Á¡ ­Âø ¦Áö ¦ºö £¯§º §Á¡ ­¨Æ

8. me mu-ur me gaba-zu bi-tab
(You have gathered up the me's, you have clasped the me's to your breast)
¦Áö §Á¡ µ÷ ¦Áö ¸Åø¤ ¨¾ôÀ¢

12. sag-kal an-ki-a inanna-bi-me-en
(Oh the foremost one, you are the Innanna of heaven and earth)
º¡í¸û Å¡ý¸£Æ ®Éý¨ÉÀ¢ Áý

13. izi-ne-ne-ra kalam-e seg-ga
(Raining the fanned fire down upon the nation)
    ±Ã¢§É ¿¢¨Ã ¸ÇõÁ §ºìÌÅ

17. kur-gul-gul u-de a ba-e-si
(Devastatrix of the lands, you are lent wings by the storm)
ÌýÚ ¦¸¡ø¦¸¡ø °ò§¾ ¬ø À¡Â¢º¢

38. sa-ib-ba-za a-ba i-te-en-te-en
(Who can temper your raging heart?)
º¡ö ±ùÅõ ¤Å ¡À ¾ñ¾ñ­?

45. i-ba us ma-ra-an-de uku-be ba-ra-nag-nag
(Blood rises in its rivers for you, the people have nought to drink)
µÀ ¯Í Á¡ýÈ «ñ§¼ ´ì¸ø§À À¢È ¿ìÌ ¿ìÌ

49. uru-ba ki-e-ne-di-be mir i-in-si
(A tempest has filled the dancing of the city)
°ÕÀ ¸£ú ¿Êô§À Á¡Ã¢ º£Â¢ý­

64. dingir-zi me-a tum-ma gal-bi-du-ga-mah-a
(True Goddess, fit for the me's, it is exalting to acclaim you)
¾¢í¸ûº£ ¦Áö ¾ÌõÁ, ¸ûÀ¢ àì¸ Á¡«

70. u-de ba-te u mu-da-pil
(They approached the light of day, the light is obscured about me)
°ò§¾ §¾öÀ  ´û §Á¡­¼(õ) À¡ú

78. kur-a-ma-ru gi-ri-ni-se i-na
(Mountain (and) flood lies at her feet)
ÌýÚ «ÁÕ  ¸¢Ã¢¿¢§º «¨½­

90. tab mu-si-in ku-ra-ni muru-ma-ne hu-mu-un-te
(Having entered before you as a partner, he has even approached his sister-in-law)
¾õÒ §Á¡ Ü⺢ýÉ¢ ÁÕÁ¡§É §¾ÔÓý

96.dumu-ir-padu-bi ama-ne na-an-sed-e
(May its plaintive child not be placated by his mother)
¾Ó ®÷ÀÎÀ¢ «õÁ¡§É ¿¡«ý ¦ºò§¾

112. an-ur an-pa nin-gal-bi-me-en
(You are the senior queen of the heavenly foundation and zenith)
Å¡§É¡Ãõ Å¡ýÀ¡ø  ¿¢ý ¸ûÀ¢Áý

114. u-tu-ud-da-ta nin ban-da-me-en
( From birth on you were the "junior " queen)
° ¦¾¡ð¼ò¾ ¿¢ý ÀñÎÁý

142. ib-ba-zu ib-gu-ul sa nu-te-en-te
(Your rage is increased, your heart unassuaged)
±ùÅõ¥ §¸¡Ä¢ôÒ º¡ö ¿¡ ¾½¢ò§¾

In the section below, we list the important lexical correspndences that exist. The list also includes the Akkadian (Ak) equivalents given in the glossary that seem to be of some interest. The Dravidian items relatable to the Ak is also given towards the end of each listing. The Dravidian equivalents were obtained from two sources: Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (DED) and Winslow's Tamil and English Dictionary(W). The numbers following the Sumerian phrase given refer to the line in the original text.

Some Important Lexical Correspondences.

Nouns

1. Su.a-a , Ak. abu "father, begetter" a-a-ugu-mu, 52

Ta. ayyaa: father, respaectable man; Ka. ayya,aya: father etc. Te. ayya,aya :id (DED163)

2. Su. a: arm, wing, strength. u-de a ba-e-si 17,27

Ta. aal: strength, power etc  as in aal-al (>aaRRal). Also Ta. aalvu: what is widw, broad, extensive etc.(W.74; DED313) Also ii, iir : wing (DED453)

3. Su. ab, ab-ba ; Ak.aptu "hole, hole serving as a window" R-ta--dal 105

Ta. aavi: to gape , yawn (DED33)

4. Su. adda: corpse, e.g. adda-ku "to devour corpse" 127

Ta. atu: to pound, kill, destroy. Hence atta: that which has been killed etc. (DED67). Also Ka. ade: to be closed, barred, shut-up, choked: adda, adde,  : a state of being across, transverse(DED73)

5.Su. ag~a(= aga) : crown; aga-zi : right crown ,  4
(note in Su. g=g~= n hence ag~a=aga=ana: possibly g~=  ng(í)

Ta. aNi: decoration, ornament ; aNikam; ornament; Tu. ani: a kind of mark or appendage worn by devil dancer(DED98). Also Ta. angkam : symmetry, beauty: angku: beauty(DED32)

6. Su. ama; Ak.umma : mother , ama-ugu : natural mother,61

Ta. ammaa, ammai:mother,goddess; Ka. amma, ama :id (DED154)

7. Su. a-ma-ru (<a-gi-ru); Ak.abubu :flood

Ta. amari: ambrosia or nectar; urine(W>29); Ta. amirutam: water; amutam: id. Also maari: rain

8. Su.an; Ak.samu, anu :heaven,sky,god of heaven

Ta. aN: uppar part: aNNal : great man ,king, god (DED 96) Ta. aan, vaan : the sky (DED4410)

9.Su ba-da-ra Ak.patna u patarru " dagger and sword" R-ma-an-si, 108

Ta. pattaRai, pattatai: anvil, smithy; to forge ; Te. pattada: id (DED3196). Ta.pattayam: a sword(W.719)  Also pattiram: a kind of dagger (W.727)

10. Su. balag, Ak.balaggu : harp   R-a-nir-ra, 33

Ta. vazakku: moving, passing to and from (DED 4330) Hence also something that vibrates. Ka. baLku, baLiku,baL(u)ku to shake, tremble; baLakisu, baLukisi: to shake a thin blade of a sword etc (DED4342)

11. Su. billuda (<pilu-da) Ak.pilludu : religious rites . R-gal-gal-la, 16

Ta. pilli: sorcery, witchcraft, magic (W>782). Also Ta. pullu, pilku: to embrace, copulate (DED 3533); Ka. bulla, bulli: male generativeorgan, Te. bulla,bulli:id (DED3534) ( "billuda" may be a ceremony similar to the present day sacred marriages of divine couples)

12. Su. dam: Ak. muutu/assatu : spouse . R-dib-ba. 141.
Ta. tam: wife as in tam-pati(wife husband) Also note Ta. thaaram: wife

13. Su. di; Ak. dinu: sentence, judgement. di-n-ga, 117.

Ta. viti: rule, law, fate etc (W>943). also note Sk. iti: to say

14. Su. dingir (dimmer> Ak. diwer); Ak. ilu/iltu : deity

Ta. teivam, theevar (>Sk. deva); Ta. tivam: appearance of a deity(W>593). Also Ta. tevvu, tingkaL: the moon(W.620)

15. Su. du, Ak.nigissu: cleft,care
Ta. veti: fissure, cleft Ta. vitar:id ; Ka. bidu: id (DED 4502)

16. Su. du/duh/dur/; Ak. ulluhu: cloth; 75,76
Ta. tukil, tuyil : fine cloth(DED 2687)

17. Su. dul; Ak. kataamu: cover
Ta. thool: skin, hide ; Ka. thool(u) :id ; Nk.Pa: thool:id (DED2937)

18. Su. dumu; Ak. maaru, maartu : son, daughter, 96,141

Ta. tampi: younger brither etc; Go. tammur:id (DED 2513). Also note the 'tam' as in tam-akkai:sister; tam-aiyan: brother, may be derived from 'dumu' meaning 'sibling'. Also note tam-ar: relatives etc (W.550)

19. Su. e; Ak. bittu: house, sanctuary, temple ; 104 etc

Ta. il: home, temple etc Kol. ella, Nk. ella;id (DED 420)

20. Su.en; Ak.eenu, eentu : high priest(ess) 67, 120

Ta. Ta. eenthu: to rise high , be eminent ; eenthal : dignitary etc (DED 739); Ta. eeN: boundary, limit (DED 751); firmness stability (DED752)

21. Su.ezi-nu: vegetation; grain, 10,43

Ta. aaciNi,aayiNi: bread-fruit tree, Artocarpus Incisa (DED310); Ta. eL,eN: sesamum indicum; Ma. eLLu:id (DED726) Ta. ezu: to rise up

22. Su. gaba : breast; gaba-tab: close to breast, 8.

Ta. KavuL: cheek, temple or jaw of elephant: Ma. kavil: cheek(DED 1124); Ta.paakam(ga-ba> paakam?): the arm(W751). Ta. kavan-tam, kapantam: headless body (W.240); kapaalam(>SK.kapaala) : the skull, cranium; Ta. kapoolam (Sk. kapola: the cheeks); Ta. kappaNam: an iron collar for the neck; a kind of neckalace (kappa: neck?)(W.241)

23. Su ga-la, Ak.kalu:ritual singer , 140

Ta. kal: to learn, practise(as arts); kalai: arts and sciences, learning ,etc; Ma. kala:id ; Ka. kali: a learned man(DED 1090)(.Sk. kalaa: an art)

24. Su.gi(s) : dark, night; gi-u-na ,56

Ta. kari: black; Ta.kaar: darkness, blacknessetc (DED1073). Also Ta. mai: black, blackness (W899)

25.  Su.gi-ri, Ak. sepu: feet, R-n--se..na , 78

Ta.ukir: finger-nail, claw; Tu.uguru, Te.goru. Kol. go.r, Nk. goor, Pa. geeri; Ca9s) geere:id Also T. kooRai: a scratch(kooR-; claw?0; Ka. kooRee: tusk, fang etc (DED 1869)

26. Su. gis-ka(n), gis-ka-na , giska-an-na : doorsill

Ta. kannam, kannakkool: an instrument for breaking into a house; kannakam:id (W.274) Ta. kannam: a hole made by burglars in a home-wall; Ka. kanna:id (DED1188)

27. Su. gizzu(<gis-zu : something dark? ) Ak. sillu: shadow,shade , 71

Ta. kangkul: darkness, night Ma.karivu:dark colour, kaNNal: darkness (DED1073)( Also note gis-zu=nis-zu> n-ii-zu. Ta.n-izal: shadow)

28.  Su.gurus; Ak.etlu: young man. R-a-tuku, 48

Ta. kuru: small, young ; Ta.kurucil: a young man (W329); Ta. kurumaan, kuruman: the tender young of certain animals, bears, birds etc (W331). Ta.kuru-Lai: youth, juvenility; the young of hares, deers, dogs, swine, jackals, tigers, red monkeys etc (W332)

29. Su. hi-li Ak. kuzbu: beauty

Ta. ezil: beauty, gracefulness (DED722)
 
30. Su.i, Ak. naru: river

Ta. oo: shutter or other means to stop the flow of water; ma. ooka, oovu: flodgate, sluice, drain(DED864) . Also naru=naRu>nathi?
 
31. Su. ib, ib-ba Ak. ezezu, ezzu: anger, (be) angry
Ta. evvam: afliction, dislike(DED 3094)

32. Su. igi, ibi (< ingi?): eye, to see etc Ak  :inu

Ta. imai: eyes, eyelid; Ka. ime,eme,eve :id (DED2097). Also Ta. akki, akkam : id (>Sk. aksi?)

33. Su. im: wind ; Su. im-hul Ak> imhullu : evil wind , 31

Ta. imir, imiz : to sound, hum etc (W>89)

34. Su. inim: word, curse etc

Ta. en: to say, to utter; Ka. en, ennu,an, annu: to spead, speak, call etc; embu, imbu : a saying, a word (DED737)

35. Su.ir: tears, crying, water ; du-mu-ir-pa-da: plaintiff child etc ,96

Ta. iir: moisture, wetness ; water, tears  Kol: iir: water; Nk. iir:id (DED3057)

36. Su. iti: moonlight , new moon

Ta. inthu: moon (W.88)

37. Su. izi: fire; izi-ne nera: fanned fire

Ka. ese: to shine, be brilliant (DED665); Ta. eri: to burn, blaze etc

38. Su. ka: mouth, ka-lal-la: honey mouth

Ta. vaay: mouth, Ma. vaay, vaa: mouth, opening etc

39. Su. kal: something  precious, nin-R Ak. suguru

Ta. kal: stone, preciuos stone (DED1091)

40. Su. kalam; Ak. maatu: (native ) lad ;13,18

Ta. kaLam: place, open space etc (DED 1160)

41. Su. kas: drink; kas-du: sweet drink , ir... R-ga-gim, 82

Ta. kasi: to ooze out; Ka. kasi: to ooze, trickle, flow etc(DED918) Also Ta. kanjci: rice-water poured off rice; To. koj: rice porridege

42. Su. ki; Ak: ersetu: earth Ak: asru, asar: place, where

Ta. ku, kiiz: place or space below; bottom, east etc(DED1348). Ta.kiiz: (agricultural) land as kiz-aan: landowner, kiz-aar: garde etc (W305)

43.Ta. Su. ki-aga(=ki-angka> kaamma?) Ak. ramu: to love; beloved

Ta. kongkaN: husband, kongka-: to love? Kur. conhaa: to love; beloved etc
Also note , Ta. irammiyam: beauty, pleasantness etc

44. Su.ku, Ak. ellu: holy, pure, divine etc  R-innana,83

Ta.kO: king, emperor, god etc (DED 1810) Also Ta. kOL: a planet; heavenly phenomena (W382) Ta. kO: greatness etc (W374)

45.. Su. kur; Ak: nakaru, nukkuru : something hostile, alien etc, 9,20

Ta. kURRu: yama-the god of death; Ma. kURRam, kURRan: enemy, destroyer(DED1602); Ta. kuRumpu: wickedness, battle, war etc (DED 1541) Also note Ta. naraku: hell (< Ak. nakaru?)

46.  Su. kur; Ak. sadu, maatu : mountain, land, country etc (DED 1548)

Ta. kunRu: hill, mountain Ta. kURu: a division of land, territory etc;  Go(w) : kuRu : hill (DED1548) Also Ta. maatu: wealth, property

47. Su. lu; Ak. awilu: man ,119

Ta. aaL: man, husband etc ; Ta. aaN: male, manliness (DED 342) Also Ta. avaaL; awwaaL: that person (in Brahmin register)

48. Su. ma; Ak. elippu: boat, R-a-nir-ra , 98

Ta. maram: tree; maa: mango tree (DED3919)

49. Su. ma-sa-b; Ak; masabbu: basket , 68
Ta. makkari; makri: basket plaited out of stout slits of bambooor of the date tree(DED 3772)

50. Su. me-lam ; Ak. mela/ emmu:  radiance , R-gur-ru ,2

Ta. mEl: the sky, the visible heaven(W.897); Ta. veL. veN; white, pure, shining; Ma. veLLi: silver, Venus etc 9DED45240

51. Su. mi, munus; Ak. awiltum, sinnistum : woman

Ta. mai: a barren woman (W.899) Ta. manusi: id (W.857)

52. Su. mu-ru-(m); maru-man: sister-in-law; brother-in-law etc , 90

Ta. marumakan, marumaan: man's son, woman's brother's son, son-in-law, descendent, scion, member of a clan etc (DED 3860)

53. Su. num-dum: lip nun-dum nun-dum : lips

Ta. n-utambu: to become soft or moist as soap in water; to become damp (n-utam : something soft and wet?) (W.687)

54. Su. pa; Ak. elaaatu: bright ?, an-pa:zenith

Ta. pakal: day, daytime, sun etc ; piyal: noon (DED3151). Also paal: milk,something white;
Ta. paal: part, portion, section etc

55. Su. sag-kal; Ak. asaredu : first, foremost

Ta.  tAngkaL: you (honorofic plural) (DED 2582)

56. Su. sag-ki; Ak. puutu: forehead, face ; R-hus-a, 37

Ta. cenni: head,cheek; Te. cekku, cengka, cempa: cheek (DED1655)

57. Su.sahar: dust
 Ta. cakati: mud, mire; cakam: earth (W.384). Ta. cERu: mud, mire, slush etc ; To. ko.r : lake, tank formed by dam; soR: mud; Ka. kesar: wet soil, mud, mire etc. 9DED1680)

58. Su.sila; Ak. sUgU: street, path, 25

Ta. cAlai: an avenue, public road etc(W.441) Also Ta. cAl: furrow in ploughing, a track of sower; Ma. cAl: furrow, channel, track etc; Kod. calli: line, furrow etc (DED2308)

59. Su. silim: blessings, good wishes

Ta. cIlam: good conduct, good morals,just deportment; right, justice, equity; good knowledge (W.469)

60. Su. sin; Ak sihru: small  Ak. sinuntu : swallow

Ta. cinna, cinni: small child, little thing (DED 23150 Also Ta. ciRu; small, a little. Related to the Ak. we have Ta. cuNdu, coNdu : bill, beak, lower lip (DED 2193) Ta. cuNtan: grey, musk shrew (DED 2190)

61. Su. sa; Ak.libba: 1. heart, mind, essence ;2. womb e.g. sa-ku: hloy womb

Ta. than, thaan: oneself; thanmai: essence, character, temper etc; Also Ta. aay: to search, examine etc. Ta. aay,aayi: mother; Ta.thaay: id (DED308) (sa(y)>Ta. aay, thaay: one with the womb?) Also note Malay: saya: I Malay sah: the right, true etc

62. Su. sir: song, incantation

Ta. ciir: a foot in poetry; tune in music, noise ,sound.(W.469). Note: Ta.ciir-aattu: to extol, praise, applaud. Here probablyciir has the original sense of song (of praise)(W.468). See. PuranAnURU(24) "taN kuravaic ciir thuukkun-thu" . Here 'ciir" in the sense of "song" fits. Also 'thuukku" here is related to Su. dug,du: to tell, relate, recite etc.

63. Su. su; Ak. qatu: hand

Ta. Ta. kand, arm: Te. ceeyi: id; Konda: kiu: id (DED 1683Also Ta. cey: to do , to make ; action etc (DED1628)

64. Su. su-luh ; Ak. suluhhu: lustration,   136

Ta. cuul: torch, flambeau(W.468)

65. Su. tab: partner,90

Ta. tampi: younger brother or male parallel cousin; ma. tampi, tamban: younger brother; Ta. tamar: one's own people, friends etc; Ka. taam, taavu : they, themselves ; you(honorific); tamar, tavar: one's own people(DED2582)

66. Su, tur: cow stall, temple cattle, byre

Ta. toRu: herd of flock, cattle: abundance, copiousness etc (W.637); Ta. tuRai: place, location, situation, space, posotion etc; resort, shelter etc

67. Su. u : 1. day, daylight as in 'u-dal-la-e-a' , 1
                 2. storm as in 'u-de a....si, 17

  1.  Ta. Ta. oLi: light, brightness, sun, moon, star etc; Ka. uLku: to shine, blaze. Also Kol. ul: day ; Kur: ulla; day (DED584) Ta. u-kam: day (W.120)

2. Ta. U-thai : wind, gale etc; Ka. Udu: to blow, blowing etc

68. Su. uku; Ak. nisu: people, e.g. uku-lu : multotudes, 45

Ta. ulaku: world, inhabitants of the world etc (W.147) . Ta. ookal: relatives, friends etc.

69. Su.ulu/ u-lu ; Ak. alu : sandstorm,    &1

Ta. ulavai : wind (W>148) Ta. uur: to move, crawl etc; Ta. Urthi: that which moves etc

70. Su. ur; Ak. kalbu: beast, dog

Ta. Ta. Ori: the male of beasts in general: a male jackal, red monkeyetc (W. 213, DED 895)

71. Su. ur, uru; Ak. aalu: earth , city etc

Ta. Ur, Uru: village, town, city; Ka. Ur, Tu. Uru: id (DED 643)

72. Su. ur; Ak. mesrEtu, kabattu, libbu: limbs, liver, heart etc

Ta. eRu-ppu: a limb, or member of the body, features (W. 160). Also Ta. Uru: the thigh (Sk. Ur: id ) (W.165)

73. Su. u-san, an-u-san; Ak. simetan, da'ummatu: evening

Compound possibly derived from 'u' meaning time, day etc and 'san' which can be compared with Ta. cAy: to diminish, decline, to grow thin etc (DED307); decline in heavenly body etc (DED 2026) u-san> u-say cf. Ta. cAyung-kAlam: evening

74. Su. us; Ak.damu: blood

Te. : Uyu(us): to spit; Kol. us-; Nk.us-; Pa.ucc-; Ca.us_: spittle Also Ta. uthir-am : blood

75. Su. usumgal; Ak. usumgallu: dragon, 116.

Compound formed with 'usum' and 'gal'. The 'gal' here is the protoform of Ta. kaL , kaN in the
sense 'great' 'multitude' etc and because of which is it simultaneously a plural marker and a particle indicating greatness in social address. The 'usum' appears to be derived from'us' that means 'poison' or the echoic 'us', the hissing sound. The word then really means somthing that hisses or spits poison  i.e. a reptile of some kind. Note. Ta. utmpu: iguana; Ma. otumpu, Ka. uda, udu; Kod. udumpi: Tu. udu, odu, oddu: large monitor lizard (DED 509)

76. Su. za-pa-ag : Ak. rigmu: sound, noice, the making of noise

Ta. capam,japam(> Sk. japa):  the recitation of prayer or mantra(W. 401); Ta. cepam: the inaudible repetion of charms, magical incatations etc (W. 502) also note Te. & Ta. ceppu: to say

77. Su. zi ; Ak. napistu: life, living, being awake, alive etc

Ta. cIvan, jIvan (>Sk jIva); life, vitality, the vital principle; the sentiaent soul, a living being, an animal etc (W.470)

Pronouns

78. Su. a-ba: who?
i. n-i- zu a-ba mu-un-zu?: who can understand what is yours

ii. a-ba i-te-en-te-en?: who can temper?

Ta. yAvan/evan: who(masc.sig), yAvaL/evaL (fem.sig)' yAvar/evar/yAr/Ar: who (neaut pl); Ka. yA/A/, E-/e/ : interogative base (DED 4228)

79. Su. a-na: what?

ga-e a-na-me-en?: what am I, even I (92)

Ta. enna, ennai what? enai: why, what? (DED 4228)
 
 Verbs and others.

 
80. Su. a-dub: to flap one's wings , 27

Ta. aatu: swing, shake, dance etc ; Ka. aadu, aatu: to be in motion, move about, wag etc (DED290)

81. Su. a-da-lam, var. i-dal(da-al)-am; Ak. innanaama : now, 76

Ta. itOLi : here; ini: now, immediately: inninni: now, even now ; innE: now, here, there ; ittaram: this kind, thus; Ko. indel: this last night, this coming night; Tu. itte: now; ittene:just now, immediately etc (DED351)

82. Su. ad-gi-gi ; Ak. mitluku, situlu: to converse (confidentially)

Ta. aRai: to tell , relate etc ; Te. adugu: to ask, question, beg, solicit, request, demand etc (DED71)

83. Su. ag, aka: to do , to make etc ,116

Ta. aak, aakku: to effect, cause , bring about ; Ko. a-k(ayk): to make , to become ; Ka. aagu, agu: id (DED282)

84. Su. ba; Ak.zaazu: to distribute ; 152
 
Ta. pA, pAku, pAttu: to divide, distribute (DED3154); Ta. payal: half, share (DED3247); Ta. pAl: part, portion ; Ka. pal:id (DED3371)

85. Su. bad: Ak. nesu: to remove ,43

Ta. padu: to perish, to die ; kill, cast down; Ka. padu: to tie down, die etc (DED3190) Also Ta. nasi: to decay, die etc

86. Su. ba-ra, ba(r); Ak.naprusu: to fly, flee, 35

Ta. para: to spread; Ka. pare: to spread, extend etc (DED3255); Ta. pari: to run, go out, escape (DED3268); Ta. paRa: to fly, hasten etc ; Ka. paRi, paRu: flying, running swiftly etc (DED3311)

87. Su. bur: Ak. suparuru, pasaaru: to loosen, reveal, interprete ;119

Ta. Ta. piri, piRi: to become disjointed, unfastened; to part. diverge, disentangle, solve(as a riddle) etc (DED3435) Also: Ta. pul: to study, learn etc as in Ta. pulamai, pulavar etc.; Ta.pul: to become bright, clear etc as in Ta. pular. Also possibley Ak. pasaaru> Ta.pakaru: to tell, explain etc

88. Su. dab; Ak. sabaatu: to seize, capture'91

Ta. Ta. tappai; Ka. dabbe, debbe: blow, stroke ; Pa. tapp: to strike, kill DED2503) Ka. tarbu, tabbu: to clasp in the arms, embrace etc (DED2543) Ta. tabu: to control as tavam; Ta. tapu: to perish ,die ; Ta. tappu: id (DED2495)

89. Su. dal; Ak. naprusu: to fly , 18

Ta. taL/taLLu: to push, force forward(DED2559). Ka. talapu: to reach DED2528): Ka. taLar: to move on or forward.

90. Su.  da/dal-la; Ak. sUpU: to shine, appear etc , 1

Ta. teL/teLLu: to be clear, shine clearly, gleam ; (K) teLLa: white, clear (DED2825)

91. Su.de(<tum); Ak. abalu: to carry increase ; 45
 
Ta. edu: to tkae up, loft up, carry etc (W 171, DED 723); Pa. edp: to lift out (DED 736). Also Ta. tim-ai, tim-ir : to grow, increase, to becom more intense etc.(W.583, 584)

92. Su. di; Ak. dinu: to sentence; judgement, 117

Ta. viti: to decree, establish rules etc; rule, principle, law; fate (W.943)

93. Su. du(g); Ak. qubu: to tell, announce, relate, proclaim etc , 102

Ta. tUkku: one kind of feature of verses; tUngku: to sing. Also Ta. kUvu: to call out. Note du(g)-du(g)> du-du=
Ta. tUtu: a messenger; Ta. tuti: to praise , Ta. tOttiram: a song of praise.

94. Su. kur; Ak. sanu: alien, hostile as in di-kur: hostile judgement

Ta. Ta. kUrru, kUrram: a dealy foe, fierce; god of death (W. 352)

95. Su.til: definitive as in "di-til"; to render a definitive verdict

Ta. Ta. til: a particle of empahsise as in vaazkathil amma in Sangam classics; Ta. tIr: to end, be finished; to settle (as a quarrel) as tIrmaanam, tIrppu etc.

96. Su. diri; Ak. atAru: to be great, supreme; to surpass etc

Ta. Ta. tIr: to become expert, to finish, complete etc. Ta. tiri: to exceed. Also Ta. tiRan: strength, power, excellence: Ta. tiRal: strength, victory, llustre (DED 2688)

97. Su. du, tu-ud : to create, produce, generate etc

Ta. todu: to bring into being, commence, undertake (DED 2866) Ka. todu/tudu: id (DED2967) Ta. tORRu: to cause to appear, produce, create etc. Ka. tOR(tOrd-) to come into existence etc (DED2942)

98. Su. du; Ak. asAmu: to be fit etc

Ta. tU: to be pure, clean etc (DED2742) Ta. taku: to be fit, suitable etc (DED 2435)

99. Su. du/duh/dur; Ak. padAru: to free; Ak. ulluhu: cloth 75,76

Ta. Ta. Ta. tura: to disperse, scatter etc (DED 2744); Ta. TuRa: to leave, relinquish etc (DED 2768); Ka. tUL: tofgo, move or proceed off etc ; taLdu: to drive away, scatter etc (DED 2792) Also Ta. tukil/tuyil: fine cloth (DED 2687)

100. Su. du/dug-; Ak. damAgu, tAbu: to be good, sweet etc

Ta. tIm: sweet, tIvu, tEm: sweetness; Te. tIya: sweetness; tipi, tipu: sweetness, liking, fondness etc; Kuwi: tipa: sweet (DED 2674) Also note Ta. tittippu: sweeetness (<tipu-tipu-?)

101. Su. dub; Ak.sapAku: to pour out, pile up ,136

T. adu: to join together (DED69); adu-kku: to pile up, heap up; Ka.adaku, aduku:id (DED 70) Ta. tuppu: to spit out; Ka. tUpu: to spit, blow, put away (DED 2725). Also Ta. tOppu, Ka. tOpu: grove, garden etc (DED2929)

102. Su. e; Ak. asu, sUpu: to emerge, appear , 147

Ta. aa, aaku: to come into existence, to happen etc (DED 282). Ta. ee: to increase, pile etc; Te. Epu: to bloom; Ecu: to increase, grow (DED 739)

103. Su. e/es/ese ; Ak. dabAbu: to speak, tell etc

Ta. isai: to sound, express, signify etc; Kui. Esa: to sing, sing, relate, say etc (DED 398)

104. Su. gal; Ak. basu: to be , exist

Ta. kAlu: to issue, flow out (W. 291). Ta. kala: to appear, come into being etc; Te. kala: existing, true etc (DED 1093) Also Ta. kAl: a prop, support; leg, foot etc (W.291; DED 1238) Also Ta. vasi: to live, exist

105. Su. gar(var. gal, ga); Ak. sakanu: to put, make, set up etc
 Ta. kAr-: action, work as in Ta. kAran: doer, kAri: workshop; kAriyam: an affair, an occurrence etc; kArukam: manufacture (W.287,288) Also note Ta.karam: the hand, arm (cf. cey: to do, cey> key, kai: hand) Also Ta. karuvi: tool, instrument, means; karuttan, karuttA: doer, maker, agent (W. 252, 253)]

106. Su. gin, g~in, Ak. alAkU: go, proceed, 22
 
Ta. n-I-: to abandon, leave etc (DED 3052). Also Ta. n-IL: to extend, go etc Also Ta. akalu: to move away, to remove etc

107. Su. gu-e;  Ak. halApu: to wrap up, 153

Ta. kuyil: to make, braid, intwine etc (W. 328). Also note Ta. kai; to adoern, decorate; Ka. kai, kay, key: id (DED 1685)
 

108. Su gu-e(<gu-du) ; to roar, shout

Ta. kUttu: to dance; a trange event (DED 1570)

109. Su. gu-ra-ra ; Ak. ragAmu, sasu: to shout, roar

Ta. Ta. kumuRu: to resound, trumpet, bellow etc. Ka. gubAru: noise of a crowd (DED 1446). Ta. kurai: to bark, to shout (DED 1496) Ta. kuZaRu: to stammer, howl, yell' Ka. keLar: to cry out, roar (DED 1521)

110. Su. gu-ul; Ak. rabu, surbu: be great, exalted

Ta. koLu: fat, flourishing, prosperous etc (DED 1784). Ka. kOl, kUl: largeness; Te. kOlu: big, huge (DED 1854)

111.Su. gul/hul, gul-gul; Ak. abatu, ubbutu : destroy, devastate, 12,17

Ta. kol: to kill, destroy, ruin; Ka. kol, kolu,kolla: to kill, murder (DED1763); Ta. koy-: to cut, snip off, reap (DED1763). Ta. kalai: to disperse, break up, etc(W. 238). Ta. kauali: to untie, loosen, dishevel, relax etc(W.334). Also note Ta. Ta. kili: fear, fright; Ko. gily: extreme fear; Ka.&Te. gili:id (DED1309)

112. Su. gun; Ak. sitAru: to flash
 
Ta. Ta. kanal: to be hot, to burn; kanarcci; golw, heat: kanal: heat, loght ; Ko. kan: redhot; Ka. kani: to glow (DED 1183)

113. Su. gur-(um/un) ; Ak. kanAsu: to bend, bow down

Ta. kur, kuni: to bend; Ta. kurangku: to bend, incline, droop: kungku: to decrease, diminish etc; Ka. kuggu, kunjcu, kurgu: to sink, become low, be bent down etc (DED 1472). Also Ta. kuRu: to become short, contract etc ; kunRu: to decrease, become reduced etc (DED 1537)

114. Su. hul; Ak. rEsu: to rejoice, 40

Ta. Ta. uval-: to be glad , to rejoice etc ; Ta. uka-:id ; Ka. O: to love, be pleased with etc; Te. uvvil: id (DED 476)

115. Su. i,id ; Ak. nAru: river, stream, 45

Ta. Ma. Ovu, Oka: flood gate, sluice, drain (DED 864); Ta. Otai: large water course etc ; Ma. Ota: water-course; Ta. Otam: flood, sea etc (DED877, 882). Also Ta. yARu, ARu: river, brook (DED 4233)

116. Su. i-lu; Ak.qubu: to cry

Ta. azu: to cry, weep, lament : azai: to call, cry out; Ta. izu: to have convulsions, to gasp for breath, DED 427). Also Ta. kUvu: to crow, cry, scream, call out etc Ta. kub-: to shout, bowl out (DED 1551)

117. Su. ib, ib-ba ; Ak. ezezu, ezzu: (be) angry, 142, 41

Ta.  evvam: affliction, dislike (DEd 3094); Ta. ikal: to hate, be inimical etc; Ko. ija: trouble; Tu. trouble, importunity (DED 353). Also Ta. icci: expression of disgust; Tu. isu.isi:id (DED 362). Col.Ta. cIcci, cEcce: expression of disgust and contempt (DED 2143)

118.  Su. il; Ak. nasu: to lift, carry, 7, 129

Ta. izu: to draw, pull, haul, drag etc ; Ka. iz, Iz, eze: to pull, drag etc (DED 427) ; Ta. izi: to descend, dismount, drp down etc (DED 426). Ta. ezu: to rise, ascend (DED 723). Ta. edu: to take up, lift up, raise etc (W. 171) Ko. ed: to take , raise etc (DED 681)

119. Su. kar; Ak. ekEmu: to take away, 86

Ta. kara-: to conceat, steal, hide, lie hidden; To. kar-: id (DED 1054)

120. Su. ne-di : to dance as in 'ki-e-ne-de' : (a place of ) dancing; Ak. mElaulyu

Ta. nadi, nada: to wald, go pass, to act; Ka. nade: to walk, march, proceed etc : To. nedt-: to conduct, organise etc . Tu. nade: to walk, conduct etc (DED 2957). Also Ta. nadungku: to shake, shiver, quiver etc; To. nodx-: to tremble; Ka. nadugu, nadagu: to tremble etc (DED 2960). Also Ta. nadam: dancing; nadi: to dance , act on stage (W. 645)

121. Su. ku; Ak akAla: to eat, consume, 127

Ta. kUz: food, semi-liquid food; Ko. ku: cooked rice; To. kURu, kUzu: boiled rice (DED1592). Also Ta. aakAram : food( < Ak.akAla?)

122. Su. ku; Ak. ellu: holy, pure ; 83, 15, 53

Ta. kO: great, superior(W.374). Ta. kO: deity as in kO-yil etc: temple (DED1810) Also note kOL: a planet, a heavenly phenomenon. Ta. el, ellu: lustre, splendour, light, sun etc ; elli: sun (DED 707)

123. Su. kur; Ak. erEbu: to enter, to turn into
 
 Malt: kore: to enter, go in, enlist (DED 1851); Ta. kUr: to bend (DED 1472);
Ka. kUlu: to fall down, be overturned etc; Kui. kUra (kuRi-): to fall over, fall down, prostrate oneself etc (DED 1587) Also Ta. iRappu: transgression, trespass; iRa-: to go, pass, pass by etc(W112)

124. Su. kus-u; Ak. anAhu, sUnuhu: to appease, rest: to snort

Ta. kukku: to sit on the legs, to squat(W.311); Ta. kunjci: to stand on one foot (W.313); Ta. kuwthu: to sit down etc . Also kucu: wind passed downwards; kucu-kucu: to whisper (W.312)

Note: Ak. sUnuhu> Ta. cuNangku: to delay, loiter etc; cuNakku, cuNangku: cringing, persisting in asking (w. 475) Ak. anAhu: Ta. aNuku: to approach, draw near; Ta. aNai: to appease, to extinguish etc

125. Su. lu-la; Ak. lalu: vigour, appeal ,88
 
Ta. alavalai: hasty action, confusion in mind, distress; allal: affliction, distress (DED 200)
Also note Malay: lalu: to move about, lari: to run etc

126. Su. lah; Ak. salAlu: to capture , 46

Te.(B.K) lAyu: to approach; alamu: to seize, lay hold of, take etc; Ta.aLa-: to measure. limit, define etc ; Tu. lakka: to measure, mark (DED 252, 253)

127. Su. mah, Ak. siru: loftey, exalted, 123

Ta. mA: great; mAtu, mAl: greatness (DED 3924); Ta. makA: great, high, exalted etc (W. 831) Ak. siru> Ta. tiru: distinction, eminence, divine, sacred etc (siru>Sk.sri?)

128. Su. me-lam, Ak. mela/emmu: radiance

Ta. Ta.mEl: the sky, the visible heavens (W. 897) Ta. veL, veN: white, pure, shining; Ma.veLLi: silver, Venus etc (DED 4524)

129. Su. na; Ak. salAlu: to lie down

Ta. aNai: to embrace, hold, clasp etc: to extinguish etc (W.17) Also Ta. sali-: to be weary, to be exhausted, spent, tired (W.419)

130. Su. nag; Ak. satu: to drink

Ta. nakku: to lick; Ko. nak: To. nok; Kol. na-k Nk. nAk; Pa.nEk: id (DED 2945). Ta, nanai: to wet, moisten, soak etc (W. 657)

Note: Su na(g)-na(g)> Ta. nanai> Sk snaana: Ak. satu > Ta. cAtam : boiled rice (W.430)

131. Su. pil/pi-la : to make obscure, dirty

Ta. pAz: to go to ruin, be laid waste, become useless (DED3381) Ta. paza-: old (DED 3299)

132. Su.ra: to smite (the head)

Ta. ari: to cut off, hop away etc (DED 175); Ta. arai: to grind, todestroy by rubbing; Te. rAyu: to be rubbed; rAcu: to rub, grind etc; Te. rAlu: to fall or drop down (DED 197)

133. Su.ra: to tell, bless
Ta. aRai: to speak, say, declare (DED 269, W.54) Kol.raz: to say, speak (DED 269)

134. Su.sa-du : to attain

Ta. atai: to obtain, enjoy, get etc(W 13,14); Ta. catai: to stop the progress of a thing; to be shut in (W 392)

135. Su. sar, sar-re; Ak. kussudu, tarAdu : to make hurry, to chase out

Ta. caram: motion, locomotion; cari: to move , descend etc; to slip, slide off etc (W.414) Ak. tarAdu> Ta. thuraththu?: id (DED 2744)

136. Su. si, Ak. malu, mullu: be full; to fill; Ak.masu: be enough

Ta. cI: lustre, glory etc (w. 465); cIr: prosperity, opulence, wealth, felicity etc; Ma. cIr: good condition, stoutness, increase (DED 2157). Ta.mal-: richness, fertility; malar: to become full; mali: to increase, become large; Ka. male: to be raised or elevated (DED 3170); Ta. malai: hi;;, mountain; Te. mala: hill, mountain;Te. mala: id; Ka.male: mountain' forerst (DED 3082) Also cimai: a hill, mountain (W.451) Also Ta.muzu: all. entire, whole,large; Ma.muzu: id (DED 4095)

137. Su. si(=sum); Ak. nadanU: to give

Ta. ii: to give to inferiors; Kol si-; NksI-; Pa.cI-: to give; kui: sIva, jIva: to give, to allow; Malt: ciye: to give away (DED 2138)

138. Su. si-sa, Ak. sutessuru: to starighten out, prepare

Ta. cI-: to sweep offf, cleanse; cIvu: to sweep clean (DED 2139) Also Ta. sIrsaal: befitting, praiseworthy etc. Alst Ta. suththam: cleanliness

139. Su. si-ig; Ak. sapAnu, suqammumu: to strike down, leve, silence

Ta. cingku: to diminish, wane,perish etc; cikku: to become lean or emaciated; cikal: to diminish, decrease, perish (DED 2065) Ak. sapAnu> cappali: to flatten, be crushed etc Ma. cappata: flat (DED 1924) Ta. samam: evenness, smoothness (W. 403) Ta. cummA: silently, quietly, in perfect peace and rest; Ka. summa, summage, summane:id Kol. surmi: silent; Nk. surum: id (DED 2205)

140. Su. sig-gi; Ak. sagAmu, ragAmu: to echo, roar

Ta. cingku: to roar? (as in singkam: that which roars, the lion?); Ta. cinungku: to whine, pule, snivel, whimper (W.446) Note Ak. ragAmu> Ta. irAkam, Sk.   rAga: melody .Also Ta. sangkItham: classical music

141. su. si-il; Ak.nuttu: to split, 94

Ta. silu: to open, split; Ko.cilv: to break along the length of the grain (DED2114) Ak.nuttu> Ta. nutu, notu: to destroy, to subject , to subdue (W.687)

142. Su. silim: blessings, good wishes

Ta. siilam: good conduct, good morals, just deportment; right, justice, equity etc (W.469)

143. Su. su; Ak. alAku sa mAduti: to go or stand

K. su.l: to get up, wake up; Nk.sUL: to rise; get up (DED 2263)

144. Su. su, sur: to give out of kindeness ;su-ra: merciful

Ta. cura: to give abundantly, pour forth continuosly (DED 2353)

145. Su. se(d) ; Ak. supsuhu: to appease, assuage

Ta. cettu: to withdraw completely, to die ; Ta. santi(> Sk. shanti) : to alleviate , pacify etc(W.433) Also Ta. sAtu: meakness, gentleness, peacebleness (W.432)

146. Su. se(g); 1. to support? 2. ill-disposed?

Ta. cEkkai: contrivance for sleeping; sleeping place of animals, birds (W.511)  Also Ta. ceku: to destroy, kill (W.499)

147. Su. seg: to rain
Ta. cIkar, cIkari, cIkaram : a drop of rain or water; rain, ripple etc(W. 405& 466) Also Ka. cepu: gush or spurt as milk; Ta. cepu: the milk to be secreted, flow, rush or spring forth (DED 2303)

148. Su. ti (te(g)): to palce eg su-ti : to place in the hands i.e. to obtain, accept etc

Ta. titi(>Skstiti): existence, preservation (W.583); Ta. tekku: to receive, take: Ka. tega, tegu, tegi : to pull, draw towards oneself etc ; Kol. tiv: to pull; Nk.tivv: to pull, draw (DED 2804)

149. Su. til Ak. gamAru: to finish, cease

Ta. tIr: to end, finish, vanish etc; Ka. tIr: to be finished, end etc (DED 2683)

150. Su. tu-ud:; Ak. aladu: to give birth to (a song)

Ta. todu: to connect, join, communicate with; to frame, form, fa ricate, forge; to make verses, compose poetry (W. 632) Ka. tudu/todu: to join, put together,; Ta. todu: to begin etc (DED 2865, 2866)

151. Su.tug,tag    Ak. ezebu: 1. to reach , settle
 
                                                  2. separate, divorce, 79
 
Ta. tangku: to sojourn, stay, abide, etc; takku: to come to stay; Kol. tak: to live (in a place), remain, stay; Nk. tak: to stay ,remain(DED2443)

Ta.takar: be crushed, scattered, be breached (as a dam, bank) (DED 2429)

Ak.ezebu : Tamil izappu: what is lost

152. Su. tar: to give, as in en--tar: take heed, (give attention), 100

Ta. taru: to give to, 1st or 2nd person; Ka. tAr, tar : to lead or conduct near, bring, give (DED 2526)

153. Su. te: to approach as in "maru-ma-ne ....te", 90

Ta. tOy: to come into contact with, reach, unite, embrace, associate with; Ma. tOyuka: to unite (DED2934)

154. Su. ten, te-en; Ak. balu, bullu: to assuage, extinguish, 142, 38

Ta. taN: cool, grace, love; taNi: to be appeased, soothed: Ka. taNi: to grow cool, satisfied, calmed, appeased, be subdued (DED 2473)
Ak. balu  > Ta. paNi(?) : to become humble, to submit etc (DED 3213)

155. Su. su-uh..du; Ak.esu: to confuse, disconcert

Ta. cU: sound used in diring away dog, cattle etc e.g. cUvida: to set on dogs (W. 492); Ta. Esu: to abuse, reproach, rail at, insult (DED 748)

156. Su.tab: to clasp, bind, 8

Ta. tappu: to put or clap sandal on the breast etc (W.549); Ta. tampi(> Sk. stambi (?)): to stpo, check, suspend etc (W>551) Ta. tai: to nail, fasten boards, beams etc: to adorn, beautify etc (W. 62(). Also Kol. tap: to put ( spell on buffala): Nk. tap: to put etc (DED 2500). Ka. talapu, talupu: to reach, come it hand , be received etc (DED 2528)

157. Su. tum: 1. Ak. suluku: to be fit, appropriate 64, 4

                      2. Ak. (w) abAlu, tabAlu: to carry (off) 42, 59

1. Ta. taku: to be fit, appropriate, suitable etc (DED 2435). Also Ko.tub: to be filled full: tum: full; Ka. tumbu: to become full, get filled up , to complete etc (DED 2735)

2. Ta. tumi: to be cut off, severed, sundered: to be dispelled as ignorance (W. 604, DED 2727)

158. Su. u; Ak. rakabu: to ride , mount as in: ur-ra u-a, 14

Ta. Ur: to move slowly, crepp: to mount a horse(W. 166, DED 643)

159. Su. u; Ak. naplusu: to glance, 148

Ta. un, unnu: to think, consider; Ko.uny: to think; To. uny: id; Ka. unkisu: to consider, observe, look at (DED 625)

160. su. ug, ug-ge; Ak. mAtu: to die , 99

Ta. ukku: to rot, decay, moulder, pine away, waste away (DED 485); Ta. utku: id (W.125) Also Ta. uku: to shed, fall down, die (DED 480).

Ak. mAtu> Ta. madi: to be inactive, droop, wither etc(DED 3802)

 161.  Su. ugu; Ak.aladu: to give birth, e.g. ama-ugu, 61

Ta. Ta. uku: to let fall, cast, pour out etc; Ka. ugu: to become loose,burst forth, flow, be shed etc (DED 480)

162. Su. ur; Ak. hamAmu: to gather together, 8

Ta. onRu: to unite; oru, Or: to be united in harmony (DED 834)

163. Su. zi: righteous, proper; appropriate

Ta. cI: lustre, splendour, glory: illustrious, sacred, venerable,etc (W. 465)

164. Su. zu: to know, be known

Ta. cUz: to deliberate, know etc; Ka. cUpu: seeing, sight etc;Tu. sukE: perception; Te. cucu(Imp. cu) : to see , observe etc (DED 2257)
 
 It is interesting that among about 190 basic lexical formatives in the text, 164 of them have recognisable Dravidian equivalaents. Among these we have isolated the follwing 83 items as bearing remarkable morphological and semantic closeness to equivalent terms in Tamil or other Dravidian languages.
 

Almost Identical Lexical Correspondences between Sumerian and Tamil

 
1. a-a Ta. ayyA, Te. Ka: aya, ayya: father

2. a-ba Ta. yAva(n/r) etc yA(r) etc: who, what

3. a-ka Ta. Ak, Ka. Agu,agu: to do, to make etc

4. ama. Ta. ammA, Ka.amma, ama : mother

5.a-ma-ru: water, flood Ta. amuri: urine, Ta.amai: ambroisia etc

6. an.   Ta: An, vAn: sky, heaven

7. a-na. Ta. enna, en, enai: what

8. ba Ta. pa: to divide, distribute etc

9. ba-da-ra: dagger and sword Ta. paddarai: anvil, smithy etc Ta. paththiram: a kind of dagger etc
10. bad: to remove . Ta. padu: to prish etc

11. bala: rebellious Ta. val, Ka. bal: to grow strong; balla: an able man

12. ba-ra, ba(r) Ta. paRa; Ka.paRi: to fly etc

13. billuda (pi-lu-da) ; religious rite Ta. pilli: sorcery, witchcraft

14. bur Ta. piri: to loosen

15. dab: to seize, capture Ta. tappai, Ka.dabe etc: a blow, stroke etc

16. dal: fly Ta. thaL: to push forward etc

17. dal-la-e-a Ta. theLLiya: resplendant

18. de:  carry Ta. edu: to take up. lift up etc

19. du: fit, proper Ta. thU: pure, clean etc

20. dul: cover Ta. thOl: skin, hide etc

21. e.   Ta. il. Kol: ella: home

22. e, Ta. A, Aku: to emerge, appear etc

23. es: to speak Ta. isai; Kui.Esa : to speak, relate etc

24. ga-ba: breast Ta. kavuL, Ma. kavva: cheek etc

25. ga-la: priest, ritual singer Ta. kalai, Ma. kalA: the arts and sciences, learning

26. gu Ta. kUvu: to call, shout

27. gu-ul: be great, exalted Ta. kOl ka. kOl, kUl : largeness

28. gul   Ta. kol: to destroy etc

29. gurus: young man Ta. kuru: small, young etc Ta.kurucil: a young warrior

30. i-li:  Ta. azu, izu: to cry

31. ib-ba : anger Ta. evvam: dislike

32. igi, ibi  Ta. imai Ka. ime, eve: eyes

33. li: to lift, carry etc. Ta. izu Ka. iz, eze : to pull, drag etc

34. inim, enem: word Ta. en; Ka. en, ennu : to say etc embu: a saying, a word etc

35. ir: ters, water etc Ta. Ir: wetness, Kol.i-r; Kk. Ir: water

36. izi: fire   Ka. ese: to shine: Ta. eri: to burn etc

37. kalam :(native) land Ta. kalam: open space, large ground etc

38. kas: drink, beer etc Ta. kaci; Ka. kasi: to ooze, flow etc

39. ki: earth, place etc Ta. kIz: place, land, bottom, earth etc

40. ne-di : to dance Ta. nadi, nada ; Ka. nade: to walk, dance etc

41. ku: to eat Ta. kUz: food

42. ku: Ta. kO: holy, pure

43. kur, kur-ru: mountain, country etc Ta. kunRu: mountain, Ta. kURu: a division of land etc

44. kus : to rest Ta. kunjci: to stand on one foot; kunthu: to squat etc.

45. lu: Ta. ALu, AL: man, person

46. ma : boat Ta. mA: mango tree, Ta. maram: tree

47. mah Ta.ma, maha: exalted

48. mi: moman Ta. mai: a barren woman

49. maru(m), maru-man: brother-in-law etc Ta. maruken, marumAn: a mana's son, a woman's brother's son, son-in-law etc

50. na: to lie down Ta. aNai: to embrace, to extinguish; mattress etc

51.nag Ta. nakku, Ko.nak-; Pa.nek  : to drink

52. pa: zenith Ta. pakal day-time. pAL: desert like land

53. pil/pi-la Ta. pAz: to go to ruin

54. ra: to tell, bless  Ta.aRai: to speak etc

55. sahar Ta. cakati, cERu: mud, mire

56. si: be full Ta. cI: splendour, glory

57. si: to give Ta. I; Kol.sI: Nk.sI: to give to inferiors

58. si-ig: to strike down, level etc Ta. cIkku, cingku: to diminish, wane etc

59. si-il: street Ta. sAlai:street, Ma. cAl: furrow, channel etc

60. si-il Ta. cilu: to split

61. sin: swallow Ta. cil, sin: small; cin-a: that which is small

62. sa, sa(g): heart, mind, person Ta.tAn: oneself, self etc

63. sir Ta. cIr: song

64. tab: clasp, bind Ta. tai: to nail, fasten Kol.tap; Nk.tap: to put

65. tab:partner Ta. tambi, tambu: younger brother etc

66. tar  Ta. taru, Ko.tar : to give, bring etc

67. te: to approach Ta. tEy, tOy: to come into contact etc

68. ten, te-en    Ta. taN : cool etc; taNi: to grow cool, calm etc

69. til Ta. tIr; Ka. tIr: to finish, cease

70. tu-ud : to give birth, produce etc Ta. todu: to frame, form etc

71. tug, tag : to reach, settle Ta. tangku: to sojourn, stay etc Kol. tak; Nk. tak: to live (in a place)

72. tur: cow stall, sacred byre Ta. toRu: herd of flock, cattle shed' Ta. tuRai: a place of refuge etc

73. u: day, day light Ta. oL, oLi: light, brightness etc

74. u: glance Ta. un, unnu: to think, consider etc

75. ug, ug-ge: to die Ta. ukku: to rot, decay etc

76. ugu: to give birth Ta. uku: to let fall, cast etc

77. ur: a beast etc Ta.Ori: the male of beasts etc

78. uru:  Ta. Ur, Uru: village, town, city etc

79. ur: to gather together Ta. Or: to bring together etc

80. ur: limbs etc   Ta. Uru: the thigh etc

81. us: blood etc Kolus; Nk.  us Ta. ecci: spittle etc

82. za-pa: noise, sound etc Ta. capam, cepam: recitationof prayers, to curse etc

83. zi: righteous, proper etc Ta. cI: sacred, venerable etc
 
Akkadian Tamil(Dravidian) Correspondences

Below we also list correspondences between some of the Akkadian terms and Tamil/Dravidian. While some of these may be borrowings from Sumerian/Dravidian , there are some such as samu, nesu, paseru, wu'uru, katAmu, sepu, sUnuhu, it'uda' wussuru' sapAna and so forth that are undravidian and possibly native to Akkadian. It is also to be noted that some of these have been taken as borrowings from Sanskrit (e.g. swAmi, rAga etc)
 

1. abu:  Ta. appA: father

2.abatu, ubbutu: to destroy, devastate Ta. Abaththu, Sk. Apad: calamity etc

3. alAku: to go Ta. alangku, Ka. alaku: to move about: Te.aluku: to scatter. Also Ta. akal: to depart

4.awilu Ta. AL, ALu : person ,man etc Also Ta. avAL(Brahmin dialect): that person

5. asru/asar: earth, place Ta. acaRu: mud, mire; acalai: the earth; acal, ayal: vicinity, neighbourhood. Also Ta. cERu: mud, mire. Also note akaram, akrahAram: a town or village in an agricultural district,; a village of Brahmins

6. basu: be, exist Ta. vaci: to dwell, live etc

7. balu/bullu: to assuage, to extingish Ta. paLLi: a cell of recluse; Ta.paNi: to submit

8. bEltu: ladu queen Ta. vEL; deity, demi-god etc

9. bitu   Ta.vIdu Ka. bIde, bIdu : home

10. balAtu: to live Ta. vAz: to live vAzththu: blessings

11. elippu: boat Ta. iluppai: a kind of tree

12.elu: to ascend, descend Ta. ezu: to ascend Ta.izi: to descend

13. ellu: holy, pur Ta. el: lustre; elli: sun

14. erEbu: to enter  Ta. iRa-: to go, passs ; iRappu: transgression

15. ezzu, ezezu (be) angery Ta. cIcci, cEccE: inerjection of disgust etc

16. Entu, Enu: high priestess Ta. Entu, Ental: high dignitary etc

17. halApu: to wrap up Ta. kalavu; Ka. kalapu: to mix  Also Ta. kaLavu: sexual union

18. it'uda: to watch, guard  Ta. thEdu: to seek, search etc

19. idu: arm, wing Ta. idai, iduppu: waist  Ta.idai: the left side

20. inannAma: now; Ta. inn-ini: now, even now; innE: now, hereTa. innamme: from now onwards

21. kamu: fetters Ta. kammal, Te. kamma: a kind of ear ring

22. kalu: prisoner Ta. kalar: inferiors etc

23. katAmu: cover Ta. katavam, katavu: door

24. malu, mullu: to be full, to fill etc Ta. muzul: all, entire Ta. mal, mali: to become abundant

25. mAru, mArtu: son, daughter Ta. maRi: young of sheep Ka. maRi: a young child; Br. mAr: son, boy etc

26.matu: to die Ta. madi: to droop, wither, die etc

27.mAtu: (native) land Ta. mEdu, madu: hillock etc

28. mUtu: spouse Ta. mAtu: woman etc

29. nesu: to remove Ta. wAcam: ruin, loss etc

30.nakAru, nukkuru: be hostile,alien Ta. nukku, noRukku : to break into pieces etc
31. naprusu: to fly Ta. nakaru: to creap. crawl

32.nAru: river Ta. yARu, ARu: river, brook etc

33. nuttu: to split  Ta. nutu, notu: to put out , quench etc

34. patAru: to free  Ta. padar: to spread, pervade etc

35. paseru: to reveal, interpret etc Ta. pakar: to tell, declare etc

36. pUtu: forehead, face T. pUtci, pUthiyam : body Also Ta. puththi:intellect, pOthaM; knowledge

37. qAtu: hand  Ta. kAthu: ear, handle of a vessel etc

38. qubu, qabu : to cry, call etc  Ta. kUvu : to call out Ta. kavi: poet, singer

39. rEsu: to rejoice Ta. ruci, uruci (Sk.rasa): relish, good taste etc

40. ragAmu: to roar, shout Ta. irAkam (SkrAga): melody, tune

41. sapanu: to strike, level etc Ta. cappali: to even out

42. salalu:  to lie down Ta. cali: tired, spent, weary

43. siru  Ta. thiru, cI ( Sk. sri): lofty, exalted

44. samu Ta. sAmi: god

45. sadu: mountain Ta. kAdu: forest, jungle, desert

46. sEpu: foot Ta. ceruppu, Te. ceppu; Kuwi(f): seppU; shoe

47. sitAru   Ta. cudar: to flash

48. suquru: something precious Ta. cokkam: silver, ruby; pure , beautiful

49. suqummumu: to stike down, level, to silence Ta. cummA;  Ka. summa, summage, summane: silently

50. sUnuhu: to rest, to appease etc Ta. sunangku: to delay etc

51. tarAdu  Ta. thuraththu: to chase out

52. tAbu: be good, sweet        Te. tipi, tipu; Kuwi: tipa ; Ta. thEn, thE, thI: sweetness

53. tAru, turru: to (re)turn Ta.  thiri: to walk about ; turucu: to haste etc

54. tErtu: decree, instruction Ta. tIrppu: judgement, tEr: to evaluate

55. ummu:   Ta. ammA: mother

56. (w)aru: to proceed Ta. ARu: path, way, route  Ta. vAr: to flow, trickle

57. wuuru: decree, instruction etc Ta. urai: to speak; speech, commentary

58. wussuru: to release Ka. osar, Ta. URu: to ooze, trickle etc

59. zEru , ziru: to hate, be hostile etc Ta. cIRu: to swell with rage etc.


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