ͧÁÕò ¾Á¢ú (3)



ENTRY 1
 

 «ýÀ÷¸§Ç Å¢¨ÃÅ¢ø ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú Å¢¨É¡ü¸û ¬ÂôÀÎõ. «¾üÌ ÓýÒ «ÉÀ÷¸Ç¢ý º¢ó¾¨ÉìÌ º¢Ä ¸ÕòÐì¸¨Ç Óý ¨Åì¸Ä¡¦ÁýÚ ¿¢¨ÉòÐû§Çý.
­ó¾ ¦ÀÂ÷¦º¡ø ¬öÅ¢ø Å¢ÂôÀ¡É º¢Ä.  Ӿġž¡¸ 'ÌÚ ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø (Su. kur, kur-kur)  'ÌÚ' ±ýÚõ 'ÌýÚ' ±ýÚõ ¦À¡ÕÇ¢ø ´òÐ ÅÕõ Ũ¸Â¢ø À¢ø¸¢ýÈÐ. ÌÈò¾¢ ÌÈÅý ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸Ç¢ø "Ìü" ±ýÈ  §Å÷, ­ô¦À¡ÕÇ¢ø À¢ø¸¢ýÈÐ. ¬É¡ø ͧÁÕò¾Á¢Æ¢ø  kur-kur  ±ýÈ¡ø '¿¡Î¸û'  '¿¡ðÊÉ÷" ±ýÚõ ÀÎõ. "¸Çõ " ±ýÚõ "°÷" ±ýÚõ ´òÐÅÕõ ¦º¡ü¸û. ¾Á¢Æ¢ø §º¡Æ÷ ¸¡Ä ¸ø¦ÅðθǢø 'ÜÚ' ±ýÈ¡ø "¿¡Î' ±ýÈ «÷ò¾ò¾¢ø  À¢øŨ¾ì ¸¡ñ¸¢ý§È¡õ.  §¸ûÅ¢ : ÌýÚ ±Ûõ ¦º¡ø ²ý '¿¡Î' '¿¡ð¼Å÷' ±ýÚ ¸ÕòÐ츧ǡÎõ À墀 §ÅñÎõ? ­¾üÌ À¾¢Ä¢Õì¸ µ÷ º¢ó¾¨É. µ÷ ¸¡Äò¾¢ø ¾Á¢Æì ÌÊ¢É÷ ÌýÚ¸û ¿¢¨Èó¿ µ÷ À̾¢Â¢ø Å¡úóÐ µ÷ ÌýÈ¢ø Å¡úó¾Å÷¸û µ÷ ÌØÁÁ¡¸ µ÷ ¿¡ðÊÉḠ¦¸¡ñÊÕó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ. Àì¸òÐ Àì¸òÐ ÌýÈ¢ÉÕõ ­ý¦É¡Õ ¿¡ðÊÉḠ «ÂÄá¸ì ¸Õ¾ôÀðÊÕ츧ÅñÎõ. §À¡Õõ âºÖõ §¾¡ýÈ¢Ôõ ­Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ. À¢ÈÌ ÀÊôÀÊ¡¸ ¬ü§È¡ÃÁ¡¸ §ÅÇ¡ñ¨Áì ¸üÚ  ¸£§Æ ­Èí¸¢ÅóРŢź¡Âõ ¦ºöÐ §Å¼÷¸Ç¡¸ ÌÈÅ÷¸Ç¡¸ ­ÕôÀÐ §À¡ì¸¢ ÁÕ¾ò¾¢¨½ Áì¸Ç¡¸ ¯ÆÅ¢¨É «ÊôÀÊ¡¸ì ¦¸¡ñ¼ §ÅÇ¡ñ Á¡ó¾Ã¡¸ ¯Â÷ñР ÀñÀ¡ð¨¼Ôõ ÅÇ÷ò¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ.
­Ð ¦¾¡¼÷À¡¸ ­ý¦É¡Õ ¸ÕòÐ. "§¸¡ò¾¢Ãõ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ¾Á¢ØìÌì ż¦Á¡Æ¢ìÌõ ¦À¡ÐÅ¡¸¢Â µ÷ ¦º¡ø. ¬É¡ø ãÄõ ¾Á¢ú ±ý§È ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. "§¸¡Î" "§¸¡Ð" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û' Á¨Ä' ±ýÈ ¦À¡ÕÙ¨¼ÂÐ. «¾É¡ø '§¸¡ò¾¢Ãõ' ±ýÈ¡ø ¬¾¢Â¢ø ­ó¾ Á¨ÄÅ¡º¢' ±ýÈ ¦À¡Õ§Ç¡Î À¢ýÈ¢Õ츧ÅñÎõ. ­ýÚ Ü¼ ÀÄ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ÀÆíÌÊ¢É÷ ­ôÀÊò¾¡ý ¾í¸¨Ç «¨ÆòÐ즸¡û¸¢ýÈÉ÷. §ÁÖõ 'ÅÕ½õ" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø¨ÄÔõ ¿¡õ 'ÅÕ¿õ" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø§Ä¡Î ­¨½òÐ À¡÷ì¸Ä¡õ. "ÅÃø ¬Ú" 'ÅÃ×" "ÁÃÒ" ±ýÀÅü§È¡Î ´ôÀ¢ðÎô À¡÷츠  Å¡¨ÆÂÊ  Å¡¨Æ¡¸  µ÷ À¡ÃõÀâÂÁ¡¸ ÅÕ¸¢ýÈ ´÷ Áì¸û Üð¼õ ±ýÈ ¦À¡Õû Å¢ÇíÌŨ¾ì ¸¡ñ¸.

­ý¦É¡ýÚ. ' ͧÁÕ" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø§Ä ÌÁâ ¦¸ªÃ¢ ±ý¦ÈøÄ¡õ ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú ¸¡Äò¾¢§Ä§Â ¾¢Ã¢Ò¸û ¯üÈ¢Õó¾Ð ±ýÚ ¸ñÎû§Ç¡õ. ¬É¡ø ­î¦º¡øÄ¢ý ¦À¡Õû¾¡ý ±ýÉ? ±ýÈ §¸ûÅ¢¨Â ±ØôÀ, ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ Áì¸Ç¢ý â÷Å¢¸ò¾¨¾ô ÀüÈ¢ ¿ÁìÌ µ÷ Å¢Çì¸õ ¸¢¨¼ì¸¢ýÈÐ.  ¾Á¢Æ¢ø ͧÁÕÅ¢ø 'º¢/Í" ±ýÀÉ À¢Ã¸¡ºõ ¦ÅÇ¢ôÀðÎî ͼ÷¾ø §À¡ýÈ ¸Õòи¨Ç ¯¨¼ÂÐ. '§ÁÕ' ±ýÀ¨¾ '¦ÁÕÌ' 'ÓÕÌ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸§Ç¡Î ´ôÀ¢ðÎ À¡÷ì¸Ä¡õ. ÁÄ¡ö ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ø 'merah' ±ýÈø "º¢¸ôÒ" ±ýÚ ¦À¡Õû. ­Åü¨È¦ÂøÄ¡õ ¦¾¡ÌòÐô À¡÷ì¸, 'ͧÁÕ" ±ýÈ¡ø Á¢¸ô À¢Ã¸¡º ¦¿ÕôÒ Á¨Ä ±ýÈ¡¸¢, ­ô¦À¡ØÐ ¿¡õ "±Ã¢Á¨Ä" ±ýÚ ¦º¡øŧ¾¡Î ¦À¡ÕÇ¢ø ´ýÈ¡¸¢ýÈÐ. ­¾¨Éì ¸¡½, ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ô ÀÆíÌÊ¢É÷, ¦¾ý¸¢Æ츺¢Â¡Å¢Ä¢ÕóÐ ¾¡ý À¢È¿¡Î¸ðÌ ÌʦÀÂ÷ó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ ±ýÚ ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. ­ó§¾¡§Éº¢Â¡Å¢ø ­ýÛõ ±Ã¢Á¨Ä¸û ¦ÅÊòÐ즸¡ñξ¡ý ­Õ츢ýÈÉ. À¡Ä¢ò¾£×, ¡Å¡ §À¡ýÈ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø ­óÐì¸Ç¡¸§Å ÀÄ ­ó§¿¡§Éº¢Â Áì¸û  ­ýÚõ Å¡úóÐӨȢø  ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÉ÷.

­ôÀÊÀð¼ ¬ö׸û «È¢Å¢Âø ¦ºöÂôÀ¼ §ÅñÎõ. ¬É¡ø ­íÌ «È¢Å¢Âø ±ýÀР áĢ «È¢Å¢Â¡Ä¡Ìõ. ¦À¡È¢Ä¢Â «È¢Å¢Âø «ýÚ.  ÅÃÄ¡üÈ¢ÂÄ¢üÌ 'replication'  ¬¸§Å ÁÚ§º¡¾¨É¸û ¦ºöÐ ´ÕÅý ÜÚŨ¾ ¿¢Úò¾§Å¡ ÁÚ츧š ÓÊ¡Ð. ¿¼óÐ ÓÊ󾨾 Á£ñÎõ ¦¸¡ñÎ Åà ÓÊ¡Ð. ¬¸ ­íÌ ¿¼óÐÅ¢ð¼ ÅÃÄ¡üÚ ¿¢¸ú Å¢ðÎýÈ ¾¼Âí¸§Ç ¿¼ó¿Ð ±ýÉ ±ýÚ À¢¨ÆÂÈ «È¢¾üÌ ¯¾×õ ¬ö×ô ¦À¡ÕÇ¡¸¢ýȨÉ. ­¾ý Ó¨ÈÂ¢Â§Ä ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢Â÷ ÜÚõ ºì¸Ãî ÍÆüº¢ ¨¿Â¡Â¢¸Á¡Ìõ. ­¾¨É ¿¡ý Á¢¸ Ţ⚸ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÃÄ¡Ú ãýÈ¡õ áÄ¢ø Å¢Ç츢 ­Õ츢ý§Èý. ¬÷ÅÓ¨¼§Â¡÷ ¦ÅýÚ ¸ñÎ ¦¸¡û¸. ¾Á¢Æ÷¸û ÅÇ÷ò¾ «È¢Å¢Âø Ð¨È ­ÐÅ¡Ìõ. ­Ð ¯Ä¸ ¿¡¸Ã£¸ò¾üÌ «Å÷¸Ç¢ý ¦Àâ ¿ý¦¸¡¨¼ÔÁ¡Ìõ.



ENTRY 2

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,
­ó¾ ¦ºö¾¢ ÁÄâø, 10 Å¢¨Éî ¦º¡ü¸û ¬Ã¡ÂôÀθ¢ýÈÉ. '¬Î' '¬ìÌ' 'À¡' 'ÀÎ' 'ÀÃ' 'ÀÈ' ; ¾Åõ ±ýÈ ¦º¡øÄ¢ý ãÄÁ¡¸¢Â '¾Ò'; ' ¾û' '¦¾û" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸¦ÄøÄ¡õ  ͧÁÕÅ¢Öõ À¢øŨ¾ì ¸¡ñ¸¢ý§È¡õ. ­ÅüÈ¢ø ÌÈ¢ôÀ¢¼ò ¾ì¸¾¡¸ 'ÀÃ" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø. ­¾É¢ý§È ¿ÁìÌ ÀÃò¾ø, ÀÃ×¾ø ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ¸¢¨¼ò¾¢Õ츢ýÈÉ. §ÅÚ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø «ýÉ¢Âõ ¸¡ðÎõ "ÀÃ' 'À¢È' ±ýÀÉ×õ ¯Â÷Å¢¨Éì ¸¡ðÎõ 'ÀÃý' 'ÀÃõ' 'ÀÃñ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸Ùõ ­Õ츢ýÈÉ.

«ýÀ÷¸Ç¢ý º¢ó¾¨ÉìÌ  µ÷¸ÕòÐ. ­ó¾ 'ÀÃ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡øĢĢÕó§¾ µÎõ ¿£Ã¢¨É ¬¸§Å ¬üÈ¢¨Éî ÍðÎõ 'Àý¢' ±ýÈ ¦º¡øÖõ ­¾ý ÅÆ¢ «¸ýÈ ¿£÷ ¿¢¨Ä¨Âì ÌÈ¢ìÌõ 'ÀèÅ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡øÖõ Åó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ. Àý¢ ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ¾¡Á¢ÃÀý¢ ±ýÈ ¬üÈ¢ý ¦ÀÂâø ¸¢¼ì¸¢ýÈÐ. ­Äí¨¸Â¢Öõ ¾Á¢Æ¸ò¾¢Öõ ­ó¾ ¦ÀÂÕ¨¼Â ¬Ú¸û ¯ñ¦¼É «È¢¸¢ý§Èý.
§ÁÖõ Á¢¸ Ó츢ÂÁ¡¸ "Àþõ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ­¾ý «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢§Ä§Â ¿¡ðÊÂò¨¾ì ÌÈ¢ìÌõ ¦º¡øÄ¡¸ §¾¡ýȢ¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ. ÀÄ Àþ ¿¡ðÊ ¬º¢Ã¢Â÷¸û ­î ¦º¡ø  À¡Åõ á¸õ ¾¡Çõ ±ýÈ ãýÚ ¦º¡ü¸Ç¢ý Ó¾ø ±ØòÐì¸û ÅÆ¢ §¾¡ýÈ¢ÂÐ ±ýÚ µ÷ ¸üÀ¨É À¢ÈôÀ¢Â¨Äò  ¾óÐ, ÀÃ¾ì¸¨Ä ¾Á¢Æ÷¸Ç¡ø §¾¡üÚÅ¢ì¸ô Àð¼ µ÷  ÀÆí¸¨Ä ±ýÀ¨¾ò ¾¢Ã¢òÐ §ÅÚ ÅƢ¢ø Åó¾Ð ±ýÚ ­ýÈÇ× À¨Èº¡üÈ¢ò ¾¢Ã¢¸¢ýÈÉ÷. ­¨ºì¸¨ÄÔõ, Àþ츨ÄÔõ ͧÁÕò ¾Á¢Æ÷¸Ç¡ø ¦ÀâÐõ §À¡üÈôÀ𼨾 À¢ÈÌ ¾ì¸î º¡ýÚ¸§Ç¡Î Å¢Çì̧šõ.

«ýÀý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý

Verbs and others.

 
80. Su. a-dub: to flap one's wings , 27

Ta. aatu: swing, shake, dance etc ; Ka. aadu, aatu: to be in motion, move about, wag etc
(DED290)

81. Su. a-da-lam, var. i-dal(da-al)-am; Ak. innanaama : now, 76

Ta. itOLi : here; ini: now, immediately: inninni: now, even now ; innE: now, here, there ; ittaram:
this kind, thus; Ko. indel: this last night, this coming night; Tu. itte: now; ittene:just now,
immediately etc (DED351)

82. Su. ad-gi-gi ; Ak. mitluku, situlu: to converse (confidentially)

Ta. aRai: to tell , relate etc ; Te. adugu: to ask, question, beg, solicit, request, demand etc
(DED71)

83. Su. ag, aka: to do , to make etc ,116

Ta. aak, aakku: to effect, cause , bring about ; Ko. a-k(ayk): to make , to become ; Ka. aagu,
agu: id (DED282)

84. Su. ba; Ak.zaazu: to distribute ; 152
 
Ta. pA, pAku, pAttu: to divide, distribute (DED3154); Ta. payal: half, share (DED3247); Ta.
pAl: part, portion ; Ka. pal:id (DED3371)

85. Su. bad: Ak. nesu: to remove ,43

Ta. padu: to perish, to die ; kill, cast down; Ka. padu: to tie down, die etc (DED3190) Also Ta.
nasi: to decay, die etc

86. Su. ba-ra, ba(r); Ak.naprusu: to fly, flee, 35

Ta. para: to spread; Ka. pare: to spread, extend etc (DED3255); Ta. pari: to run, go out, escape
(DED3268); Ta. paRa: to fly, hasten etc ; Ka. paRi, paRu: flying, running swiftly etc (DED3311)

87. Su. bur: Ak. suparuru, pasaaru: to loosen, reveal, interprete ;119

Ta. Ta. piri, piRi: to become disjointed, unfastened; to part. diverge, disentangle, solve(as a
riddle) etc (DED3435) Also: Ta. pul: to study, learn etc as in Ta. pulamai, pulavar etc.; Ta.pul: to
become bright, clear etc as in Ta. pular. Also possibley Ak. pasaaru> Ta.pakaru: to tell, explain
etc

88. Su. dab; Ak. sabaatu: to seize, capture'91

Ta. Ta. tappai; Ka. dabbe, debbe: blow, stroke ; Pa. tapp: to strike, kill DED2503) Ka. tarbu,
tabbu: to clasp in the arms, embrace etc (DED2543) Ta. tabu: to control as tavam; Ta. tapu: to
perish ,die ; Ta. tappu: id (DED2495)

89. Su. dal; Ak. naprusu: to fly , 18

Ta. taL/taLLu: to push, force forward(DED2559). Ka. talapu: to reach DED2528): Ka. taLar: to
move on or forward.

90. Su.  da/dal-la; Ak. sUpU: to shine, appear etc , 1

Ta. teL/teLLu: to be clear, shine clearly, gleam ; (K) teLLa: white, clear (DED2825)



  ENTRY 3
 

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,

ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú ÀÄ «È¢»÷¸Ç¢ý ¸Õò¨¾ì ¸Å÷óÐûÇÐ ±ýÀ¨¾ «È¢Â ÅóÐ ¦ÀÕõ Á¸¢ú «¨¼¸¢ý§Èý. ¿¡ý ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢Âø «È¢»ý «øÄý ¬Â¢Ûõ ­ó¾ ¬öÅ¢¨É µÃÇÅ¡Ð ¿ýÈ¡¸î ¦ºö ­ó¾ ШȨÂÔõ µÃÇ×ì ¸ü§È, ­¾¨ÉÔõ ¦¾¡¼÷¸¢ý§Èý. À¢¨Æ¸û ­ÕôÀ¢ý ¦À¡Úò¾Õû¸.
        ­ó¾ ¦ºö¾¢Â¢ø ͨÅÂ¡É ÀÄ ¦º¡ü¸û: Å¢¾¢, àìÌ, Ü×, ÜüÚ, ¾¢ø, ¾£÷, ¾¢Ã¢, ¦¾¡Î, à, ¾£õ , ÐÃ, ÐÈ  ±ýÀÉ §À¡ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ͧÁÕÅ¢ø º¢È¢§¾ §ÅÚÀð¼ ÅÊÅ¢ø À¢øŨ¾ì ¸¡ñ¸¢ý§È¡õ. ­ÅüÈ¢ø ¿õ ¸ÅÉò¨¾ ¸Å÷ž¡¸ «ì¸¡ÊÂò¾¢ø À¢Öõ ¬É¡ø «§É¸Á¡¸ ͧÁÕŢĢÕóÐ ¦ºýÈ  tAbu ±ýÈ ¦º¡øÄ¡Ìõ.  ¦¾ÖíÌ ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ø ¾¢ôÀ¢, ¾¢ôÒ ±ýÚ À¢Öõ ¦º¡ü¸§Ç¡Î ­Ð ¯ÕÅ¢Öõ ¦À¡ÕÇ¢Öõ ´òÐ ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ¾Á¢Æ¢ø ¾£õ §¾õ ±ý§È ¿¢ü¸¢ýÈÐ. ¬Â¢Ûõ ͨÅÂ¡É µ÷ ¦ºö¾¢ ±ýɦÅýÈ¡ø ÁÄ¡ö ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ø tebu ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ¸ÕõÒ ±ýÈ ¦À¡Õû ¯¨¼ÂÐ. ­¾É¡ø, ¾¢ôÒ ¾¢ò¾¢ôÒ ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ¸ÕõÒ ±ýÈ «¾É¢ý À¨Æ§š÷ ¦ÀÂ÷ ÅƢ¡¸ ¬É¡ø ¬Ì¦ÀÂḠÅó¾ ´ýÚ ±ýÚ «È¢Â ÅÕ¸¢ý§È¡õ.  ÁÄ¡ö Á츧ǡΠ´÷ ¯¨È¨Åì ¸¡ðÎõ «§¾¦À¡ØÐ ¸ÕõÀ¢¨É ¸ñÎÀ¢Êò¾ô À¢È§¸ À¢Ã¢× Åó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ ±ýÚõ ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. ¸ÕõÀ¢¨Éô À¢÷ ¦ºöР º÷츨à ±ÎìÌõ ӨȨ ­Å÷¸û «È¢ó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ ±ýÚõ ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ.

«ýÀý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý

91. Su.de(<tum); Ak. abalu: to carry increase ; 45
 
Ta. edu: to tkae up, loft up, carry etc (W 171, DED 723); Pa. edp: to lift out (DED 736). Also Ta.
tim-ai, tim-ir : to grow, increase, to becom more intense etc.(W.583, 584)

92. Su. di; Ak. dinu: to sentence; judgement, 117

Ta. viti: to decree, establish rules etc; rule, principle, law; fate (W.943)

93. Su. du(g); Ak. qubu: to tell, announce, relate, proclaim etc , 102

Ta. tUkku: one kind of feature of verses; tUngku: to sing. Also Ta. kUvu: to call out. Note
du(g)-du(g)> du-du=
Ta. tUtu: a messenger; Ta. tuti: to praise , Ta. tOttiram: a song of praise.

94. Su. kur; Ak. sanu: alien, hostile as in di-kur: hostile judgement

Ta. Ta. kUrru, kUrram: a dealy foe, fierce; god of death (W. 352)

95. Su.til: definitive as in "di-til"; to render a definitive verdict

Ta. Ta. til: a particle of empahsise as in vaazkathil amma in Sangam classics; Ta. tIr: to end, be
finished; to settle (as a quarrel) as tIrmaanam, tIrppu etc.

96. Su. diri; Ak. atAru: to be great, supreme; to surpass etc

Ta. Ta. tIr: to become expert, to finish, complete etc. Ta. tiri: to exceed. Also Ta. tiRan: strength,
power, excellence: Ta. tiRal: strength, victory, llustre (DED 2688)

97. Su. du, tu-ud : to create, produce, generate etc

Ta. todu: to bring into being, commence, undertake (DED 2866) Ka. todu/tudu: id (DED2967)
Ta. tORRu: to cause to appear, produce, create etc. Ka. tOR(tOrd-) to come into existence etc
(DED2942)

98. Su. du; Ak. asAmu: to be fit etc

Ta. tU: to be pure, clean etc (DED2742) Ta. taku: to be fit, suitable etc (DED 2435)

99. Su. du/duh/dur; Ak. padAru: to free; Ak. ulluhu: cloth 75,76

Ta. Ta. Ta. tura: to disperse, scatter etc (DED 2744); Ta. TuRa: to leave, relinquish etc (DED
2768); Ka. tUL: tofgo, move or proceed off etc ; taLdu: to drive away, scatter etc (DED 2792)
Also Ta. tukil/tuyil: fine cloth (DED 2687)

100. Su. du/dug-; Ak. damAgu, tAbu: to be good, sweet etc

Ta. tIm: sweet, tIvu, tEm: sweetness; Te. tIya: sweetness; tipi, tipu: sweetness, liking, fondness
etc; Kuwi: tipa: sweet (DED 2674) Also note Ta. tittippu: sweeetness (<tipu-tipu-?)



ENTRY 4
        «ýÀ÷¸§Ç,

­ý¨È  ͧÁÕ ¦ºö¾¢ ÁÄ÷ µ÷ Ó츢ÂÁ¡É ¸ñÎÀ¢Êô§À¡Î ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ.  '¬. ¬Ì' '²' '­¨º' '¸¡ø' '«¸ø' 'Ì¢ø' '¦¸¡Ù' 'ÜòÐ' 'ÌÓÚ' ±ýÀÉ §À¡ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ͧÁÕÅ¢ø À¢øŨ¾ì ¸¡ðÎŧ¾¡Î, ÅÃÄ¡üÚ º¢ÈôÒ Á¢ì¸ '¸¡÷' ±ýÀÐ×õ ¬¸§Å «¾ÉÊ¡¸ô À¢Èó¾¢Õ츢ýÈ ­ýÛõ ÀÄ ¦º¡ü¸Ùõ ¾Á¢§Æ, ­ÐŨà ¾Á¢ú «È¢»÷¸Ùõ ²üÚì ¦¸¡ñ¼Å¡Ú ż¦Á¡Æ¢ «øÄ ±ýÚõ ¸¡ðθ¢ýÈÐ. ­¾É¡ø, ¸¡Ã¢Âõ, ¸¡Ã½õ, ¸Ãõ, ¸Õò¾¡, ¸¡Ã¸õ, ¸ÕÅ¢ , ¸Õ, ¸ÕòÐ ±ýÀÉ §À¡ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸¦ÇøÄ¡õ  àÂò ¾Á¢§Æ ±ýÚ ÒÄÉ¡¸¢ýÈÐ. ­¾É¡ø ­ó¾¢Â ¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÃÄ¡üÈ¢ø µ÷ ¨Á ­¼ò¨¾ ±øÄ¡ ºÁÂí¸Ç¢Öõ À¢ÊòÐì ¦¸¡ñÊÕìÌõ ¸÷Áõ, ¸ýÁõ ±ýÈ ¸ÕòÐì¸û ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ Áì¸ÇÐ º¢ó¾¨É¢§Ä§Â  Ó¸¢úò¾¢Õ츧ÅñÎõ ±ýÚõ  ÒÄÉ¡¸¢ýÈÐ. ­ó¾ ¸ýÁì §¸¡ðÀ¡§¼ ±øÄ¡ ­ó¾¢Â ºÁÂí¸ðÌõ ¦À¡Ðšɾ¡¸ ¿¢ü¸, ä¾õ, ¸¢Ã¢òÐÅõ, ­ÍÄ¡õ §À¡ýÈ ¦ºÁ¢ò¾¢Â ºÁÂí¸Ç¢ø ­øÄ¡¾¦Å¡ýÚ ±ýÚõ ¿¢¨É츢ý§Èý. «È¢»÷¸û ¦¾Ç¢Å¡ì̸.

­ýÛ¦Á¡ýÚ.  ¸÷¿¡¼¸  ­¨ºÂ¢ø "­Ã¡¸õ' ±ýÀÐ µ÷ Ó츢ÂÁ¡É ¸¨Äî ¦º¡øÄ¡Ìõ. ­ÐŨà ­¾¨É ż¦Á¡Æ¢ ±ý§È ¿¢¨ÉòÐ ÅóÐû§Ç¡õ. ¬É¡ø ¯ñ¨Á¢ø ­Ð§Å¡÷ «ì¸¡ÊÂî ¦º¡ø ±ýÚ ¦¾Ã¢Â ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ­Ð ¦¾¡ø¸¡ôÀ¢Â÷ ¸¡Äò¾¢üÌ Óý§À «ì¸¡Ê Á츧ǡΠ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ì ÌÊ¢É÷ Å¡úó¾¢Õ츧ÅñÎõ ±ýÚõ ¸¡ðθ¢ýÈÐ

«ýÀý ¸¢. §Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý

101. Su. dub; Ak.sapAku: to pour out, pile up ,136

T. adu: to join together (DED69); adu-kku: to pile up, heap up; Ka.adaku, aduku:id (DED 70)
Ta. tuppu: to spit out; Ka. tUpu: to spit, blow, put away (DED 2725). Also Ta. tOppu, Ka. tOpu:
grove, garden etc (DED2929)

102. Su. e; Ak. asu, sUpu: to emerge, appear , 147

Ta. aa, aaku: to come into existence, to happen etc (DED 282). Ta. ee: to increase, pile etc; Te.
Epu: to bloom; Ecu: to increase, grow (DED 739)

103. Su. e/es/ese ; Ak. dabAbu: to speak, tell etc

Ta. isai: to sound, express, signify etc; Kui. Esa: to sing, sing, relate, say etc (DED 398)

104. Su. gal; Ak. basu: to be , exist

Ta. kAlu: to issue, flow out (W. 291). Ta. kala: to appear, come into being etc; Te. kala: existing,
true etc (DED 1093) Also Ta. kAl: a prop, support; leg, foot etc (W.291; DED 1238) Also Ta.
vasi: to live, exist

105. Su. gar(var. gal, ga); Ak. sakanu: to put, make, set up etc
 Ta. kAr-: action, work as in Ta. kAran: doer, kAri: workshop; kAriyam: an affair, an occurrence
etc; kArukam: manufacture (W.287,288) Also note Ta.karam: the hand, arm (cf. cey: to do, cey>
key, kai: hand) Also Ta. karuvi: tool, instrument, means; karuttan, karuttA: doer, maker, agent
(W. 252, 253)]

106. Su. gin, g~in, Ak. alAkU: go, proceed, 22
 
Ta. n-I-: to abandon, leave etc (DED 3052). Also Ta. n-IL: to extend, go etc Also Ta. akalu: to
move away, to remove etc

107. Su. gu-e;  Ak. halApu: to wrap up, 153

Ta. kuyil: to make, braid, intwine etc (W. 328). Also note Ta. kai; to adoern, decorate; Ka. kai,
kay, key: id (DED 1685)
 

108. Su gu-e(<gu-du) ; to roar, shout

Ta. kUttu: to dance; a trange event (DED 1570)

109. Su. gu-ra-ra ; Ak. ragAmu, sasu: to shout, roar

Ta. Ta. kumuRu: to resound, trumpet, bellow etc. Ka. gubAru: noise of a crowd (DED 1446).
Ta. kurai: to bark, to shout (DED 1496) Ta. kuZaRu: to stammer, howl, yell' Ka. keLar: to cry
out, roar (DED 1521)

110. Su. gu-ul; Ak. rabu, surbu: be great, exalted

Ta. koLu: fat, flourishing, prosperous etc (DED 1784). Ka. kOl, kUl: largeness; Te. kOlu: big,
huge (DED 1854)
 



ENTRY 5
 

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,

­ý¨È ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú ¦ºö¾¢ÁÄ÷ ­ýÛõ ÀÄ «Æ¸¢Â ¾Á¢ú ¦º¡ü¸û, ­ýÚõ ¿¨¼Ó¨È¢ø ­ÕôÀ¨Å ͧÁÕ ¸¡Äò¾¢§Ä§Â ¦ÀÕÅÆ츢ø ­Õ󾨾 ¸¡ðÎõ ´ýÈ¡¸ «¨ÁÔõ. ­ÅüÈ¢ø Ó츢ÂÁ¡¸ '¦¸¡ø' 'Ìø' '¸Éø' 'ͼ÷'  'Ì÷' '¯Åø' '¬Ú' ' µ¨¼' '­Ø' '«Ø' '±ùÅõ' '¸ÃôÒ' '¿Ê' §À¡ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸¨Çî Íð¼Ä¡õ. ­ÅüÈ¢ø '¿¼' «øÄÐ '¦¿Ê' ±ýÀÐ ÀñÀ¡ðÎ ÅÃÄ¡üÈ¢üÌ ¦ÀâÐõ ¯¾×õ ´ýÈ¡Ìõ. ­Ð à ¾Á¢ú ¦º¡ø¦ÄÉ ­¾É¢ý «Ê¡¸ô À¢ÈóÐûÇ, ¿¼Éõ, ¿¡ðÊÂõ, ¿¡¼¸õ  ±ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸Ùõ àÂò ¾Á¢Æ¡¸¢ýÈÉ. «ò§¾¡Î ÀÄ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø À¢ø¸¢ýÈ ´ýÈ¡¸ 'ki-e-ne-di'  ±ýȧš÷ ¦º¡ü¦È¡¼÷ ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ­¾¨É "¸¢Æ ¿Ê" ±ýÚ ¾Á¢ú ÀÎòЧšÁ¡É¡ø, ¿¡¼¸ ¿¡ðÊ «Ãí¸í¸û «ì¸¡Äò¾¢§Ä§Â °÷ ¦¾¡Úõ ­Õó¾¢Õì¸ §ÅñÎõ ±ýÀ¨¾ì ¸¡ðθ¢ýÈÐ. '¸¢Æõ' ±ýÀÐ ­íÌ, '¸£ú' ±ýÀ¾¢ý «Ê¡¸ô À¢ÈóóÐûÇ '­¼õ' ±ýÈ ¦À¡ÕÙ¨¼Â¾¡Ìõ.  ¿¼Éì ¸¨ÄÔõ ­¨ºì¸¨ÄÔõ ¦ÀâÐõ §À¡üÈôÀðÎ ÅÇ÷ì¸ôÀðÊÕ󾨾 ²¨É ͧÁÕ ­Ä츢Âí¸Ùõ Á¢¸ò ¦¾Ç¢Å¡¸ Å¢Çì̸¢ýÈÉ. «ÅüÈ¢ø ÌÈ¢ôÀ¢¼ò¾ì¸¾¡¸ Jerrold S. Cooper ±ýÀ¡Ã¡ø ¦ÅǢ¢¼ôÀðÎûÇ The Curse of Agade  ±Ûõ áÄ¡Ìõ. ­¾¢ø ¬÷ÅÓ¨¼§Â¡÷ barnesandnoble  áøÁ¢ýÁ¨É¢ø ¦¾¡¼÷Ò ¦¸¡ñ¼¡ø ¸¢¨¼ì̦ÁÉ ¿õÒ¸¢ý§Èý. ­ó¾ á¨Ä ¬öóÐ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦ÁöÂÈ¢× ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢ø ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú ¾¨ÄôÀ¢ø ²ü¸É§Å µ÷ ¸ðΨà §À¡ð¼¡¸¢Å¢ð¼Ð. ¸¡ñ¸.

«ýÀý ¸¢. §Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý

111.Su. gul/hul, gul-gul; Ak. abatu, ubbutu : destroy, devastate, 12,17

Ta. kol: to kill, destroy, ruin; Ka. kol, kolu,kolla: to kill, murder (DED1763); Ta. koy-: to
cut, snip off, reap (DED1763). Ta. kalai: to disperse, break up, etc(W. 238). Ta. kauali: to
untie, loosen, dishevel, relax etc(W.334). Also note Ta. Ta. kili: fear, fright; Ko. gily:
extreme fear; Ka.&Te. gili:id (DED1309)

112. Su. gun; Ak. sitAru: to flash
 
Ta. Ta. kanal: to be hot, to burn; kanarcci; golw, heat: kanal: heat, loght ; Ko. kan:
redhot; Ka. kani: to glow (DED 1183)

113. Su. gur-(um/un) ; Ak. kanAsu: to bend, bow down

Ta. kur, kuni: to bend; Ta. kurangku: to bend, incline, droop: kungku: to decrease,
diminish etc; Ka. kuggu, kunjcu, kurgu: to sink, become low, be bent down etc (DED
1472). Also Ta. kuRu: to become short, contract etc ; kunRu: to decrease, become
reduced etc (DED 1537)

114. Su. hul; Ak. rEsu: to rejoice, 40

Ta. Ta. uval-: to be glad , to rejoice etc ; Ta. uka-:id ; Ka. O: to love, be pleased with etc;
Te. uvvil: id (DED 476)

115. Su. i,id ; Ak. nAru: river, stream, 45

Ta. Ma. Ovu, Oka: flood gate, sluice, drain (DED 864); Ta. Otai: large water course etc ;
Ma. Ota: water-course; Ta. Otam: flood, sea etc (DED877, 882). Also Ta. yARu, ARu:
river, brook (DED 4233)

116. Su. i-lu; Ak.qubu: to cry

Ta. azu: to cry, weep, lament : azai: to call, cry out; Ta. izu: to have convulsions, to gasp
for breath, DED 427). Also Ta. kUvu: to crow, cry, scream, call out etc Ta. kub-: to shout,
bowl out (DED 1551)

117. Su. ib, ib-ba ; Ak. ezezu, ezzu: (be) angry, 142, 41

Ta.  evvam: affliction, dislike (DEd 3094); Ta. ikal: to hate, be inimical etc; Ko. ija:
trouble; Tu. trouble, importunity (DED 353). Also Ta. icci: expression of disgust; Tu.
isu.isi:id (DED 362). Col.Ta. cIcci, cEcce: expression of disgust and contempt (DED
2143)

118.  Su. il; Ak. nasu: to lift, carry, 7, 129

Ta. izu: to draw, pull, haul, drag etc ; Ka. iz, Iz, eze: to pull, drag etc (DED 427) ; Ta. izi:
to descend, dismount, drp down etc (DED 426). Ta. ezu: to rise, ascend (DED 723). Ta.
edu: to take up, lift up, raise etc (W. 171) Ko. ed: to take , raise etc (DED 681)

119. Su. kar; Ak. ekEmu: to take away, 86

Ta. kara-: to conceat, steal, hide, lie hidden; To. kar-: id (DED 1054)

120. Su. ne-di : to dance as in 'ki-e-ne-de' : (a place of ) dancing; Ak. mElaulyu

Ta. nadi, nada: to wald, go pass, to act; Ka. nade: to walk, march, proceed etc : To.
nedt-: to conduct, organise etc . Tu. nade: to walk, conduct etc (DED 2957). Also Ta.
nadungku: to shake, shiver, quiver etc; To. nodx-: to tremble; Ka. nadugu, nadagu: to
tremble etc (DED 2960). Also Ta. nadam: dancing; nadi: to dance , act on stage (W.
645)
 



ENTRY 6
 

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,
µ÷ º¢È¢Â ­¨¼¦ÅÇ¢ìÌô À¢ÈÌ Á£ñÎõ ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú ¦ºö¾¢ÁÄ÷ «Æ¸¢Â ÀÄ ¾Á¢ü ¦º¡ü¸û ͧÁÕÅ¢ø ÀƸ¢ Å󾨾 º¡ýÚ¸§Ç¡Î ¿¢Úòи¢ýÈÐ. ­ó¾ ͧÁÕ ¬öÅ¢¨É ¿¢Úò¾¢Å¢¼ ±ýÉ¡ø ÓÊÂÅ¢ø¨Ä. ÀÄ º¢ÃÁí¸ð¸¢¨¼§Â ­¾¨É ±ôÀʧ¡ ¦ºöÐ ÅÕ¸¢ý§Èý. «¾üÌ Ó츢ÂÁ¡É ¸¡Ã½õ ­Ð§Å ¯ñ¨Á¨Â ¯½÷ò¾¢ ¾Á¢Æ¢ý ¦ÀÕ¨Á¨Â ¾Á¢Æ÷¸û «È¢Âò ¾Õŧ¾¡Î ²¨É ¿øÄÅ÷¸Ùõ «È¢óЦ¸¡ûÇ Å¨¸¦ºöÔõ ±ýÀ§¾. ¯ñ¨Á§Â Åý¨Á Á¢ì¸Ð, Á¡üÈ¡÷ ÁÉò¨¾Ôõ Á¡üÚõ ÅøĨÁÂÐ.
 
         ¾¨É측ñ À¡ý¾ý¨É ¾ýÀ¡ø «¼ìÌõ
        Åý¨Á ¯ñ¨Á째 ¯ñΠ  («ÕðÌÈû)
 
Å£½¡¸ À¡÷ôÀÉ÷¸¨Çî º¡ÎÅÐ ­É¢§Áø §¾¨Å¢ø¨Ä. ¦ºò¾ À¡õ¨À «ÊôÀРţÃõ «øÄ. ¾Á¢ú ÀñÀ¡Î Ҩç¡Êì ¸¢¼ì¸¢ýȦ¾ýÈ¡ø, «¾üÌò ¾Á¢Æ§É ¦À¡ÚôÒ. ­¾¢ø ¾Á¢ú À¡÷ôÀÉ÷¸Ùõ «¼íÌÅ¡÷¸û. º¡¾¢¨Â «¾¢¸õ À¡Ã¡ðÎÅР ­ý¨È ¿¢¨Ä¢ø À¡÷ôÀÉ÷¸û «øÄ; À¡÷ôÀÉ÷ «øÄ¡¾Å÷¸§Ç ­¾¢ø ¾£Å¢Ãí ¸¡ðθ¢ýÈÉ÷. ͧÁÕò ¾Á¢ú §À¡ýÈ ¬ö׸û ¾Á¢Æ¢ý ¦ÀÕ¨Á¨Â ¯Ä¸È¢Âî ¦ºöÐ, ¾Á¢Æ¨ÉÔõ ¾¨Ä¿¢Á¢÷óÐ ¾ýÁ¡Éò§¾¡Î Å¡Æî ¦ºöÔõ. ¸¼ó¾ 25 ¬ñθǡ¸ ÀÄ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø ÀÄÅ¡Ú ­¾¨Éô ÀüÈ¢ ±ÎòШÃòÐõ- ­¾¢ø ÀÄ ¾Á¢Æ¸ Ш½§Åó¾÷¸Ùõ «Ãº¢ÂøÅ¡¾¢¸Ùõ «¼íÌÅ÷- ±ó¾¦Å¡Õ ¾Á¢Æ¸òÐ Àø¸¨Ä§Â¡ ­¾¨ÉôÀüÈ¢  ­ÐŨà ´ÕÅ¡÷ò¨¾ ±ýÉ¢¼í §¸ð¼¾¢ø¨Ä. ­ôÀÊôÀð¼ ¯ÕôÀÊÂ¡É ¸¡Ã¢Âí¸Ç¢ø ®ÎÀÎÅРŢðÎÅ¢ðΠ  Å£½¡¸ À¡÷ôÀÉ÷¸¨Çò  ¾¢ðÎÅÐ §¾¨ÅÂüȦšýÚ ±ý§È ¿¢¨É츢ý§Èý. «Ð µ÷Ũ¸Â¡É ¦À¡öÅ£Ãõ.
 

­ó¿ Á¼Ä¢ø ÀÄ Í¨ÅÂ¡É ¦º¡ü¸û. ­ô¦À¡ØРż¦Á¡Æ¢ ±É ¾£Å¢Ãò ¾Á¢Æ÷¸Ç¡§§Â ¿õÀôÀÎõ ÀÄ ¦º¡ü¸û ¯ñ¨Á¢ø ¾Á¢§Æ ±ýÚ ¦¾Ã¢Â ÅÕž¡Ìõ. '¿¡Éõ' ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ¾Á¢ú '¿¨É' ±ýÀ¾¢ý À¢Èú ÅÊŦÁÉò ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. ͧÁÕ "¿(ì)" ±ýÀ¾¢Ä¢ÕóÐ Åó¾¦Å¡ýÈ¡¸ ­Ð Å¢Çí̸¢ýÈÐ. "¿-¿" ¿¨É¡¸¢ À¢ÈÌ Å¼¦Á¡Æ¢ ¬ì¸ò¾¢ø ÀÄ ­¼í¸Ç¢ø À¢Öõ  ¸Ã Óý¦É¡ðÎô ¦ÀüÚ '¿¡Éõ" ¬¸¢ýÈÐ. ­§¾ô §À¡ýÚ 'àÄõ" "¾¢¾¢" "§¿¸õ" ±ýÀÉ §À¡ýÚ ­ýÛõ ÀÄ. §ÁÖõ ¾Á¢Æ¢ý '¾¢Õ' ż¦Á¡Æ¢ 'â" ±ýÀÅüÈ¢ý  ãÄõ «ì¸¡Ê 'º¢Ã¢' ±ýÚó ¦¾Ã¢ÂÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ­Ð×õ ¾Á¢ú 'º£' ±ýÀ¾¢Ä¢ÕýóÐ Åó¾ ´ýÈ¡¸ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ. ­ýÛõ ¬Ã¡ö §¾¨Å. º£¨¾, º£Ãí¸õ , º£§¾Å¢, º£ò¾¨Äî º¡ò¾ý ±ýÀÅüÈ¢ÖûÇ 'º£' ­ó¾ ͧÁÕ 'º£' ¬¸ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ.

«ýÀý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý

121. Su. ku; Ak akAla: to eat, consume, 127

Ta. kUz: food, semi-liquid food; Ko. ku: cooked rice; To. kURu, kUzu: boiled rice (DED1592).
Also Ta. aakAram : food( < Ak.akAla?)

122. Su. ku; Ak. ellu: holy, pure ; 83, 15, 53

Ta. kO: great, superior(W.374). Ta. kO: deity as in kO-yil etc: temple (DED1810) Also note
kOL: a planet, a heavenly phenomenon. Ta. el, ellu: lustre, splendour, light, sun etc ; elli: sun
(DED 707)

123. Su. kur; Ak. erEbu: to enter, to turn into
 
 Malt: kore: to enter, go in, enlist (DED 1851); Ta. kUr: to bend (DED 1472);
Ka. kUlu: to fall down, be overturned etc; Kui. kUra (kuRi-): to fall over, fall down, prostrate
oneself etc (DED 1587) Also Ta. iRappu: transgression, trespass; iRa-: to go, pass, pass by
etc(W112)

124. Su. kus-u; Ak. anAhu, sUnuhu: to appease, rest: to snort

Ta. kukku: to sit on the legs, to squat(W.311); Ta. kunjci: to stand on one foot (W.313); Ta.
kuwthu: to sit down etc . Also kucu: wind passed downwards; kucu-kucu: to whisper (W.312)

Note: Ak. sUnuhu> Ta. cuNangku: to delay, loiter etc; cuNakku, cuNangku: cringing, persisting
in asking (w. 475) Ak. anAhu: Ta. aNuku: to approach, draw near; Ta. aNai: to appease, to
extinguish etc

125. Su. lu-la; Ak. lalu: vigour, appeal ,88
 
Ta. alavalai: hasty action, confusion in mind, distress; allal: affliction, distress (DED 200)
Also note Malay: lalu: to move about, lari: to run etc

126. Su. lah; Ak. salAlu: to capture , 46

Te.(B.K) lAyu: to approach; alamu: to seize, lay hold of, take etc; Ta.aLa-: to measure. limit,
define etc ; Tu. lakka: to measure, mark (DED 252, 253)

127. Su. mah, Ak. siru: loftey, exalted, 123

Ta. mA: great; mAtu, mAl: greatness (DED 3924); Ta. makA: great, high, exalted etc (W. 831)
Ak. siru> Ta. tiru: distinction, eminence, divine, sacred etc (siru>Sk.sri?)

128. Su. me-lam, Ak. mela/emmu: radiance

Ta. Ta.mEl: the sky, the visible heavens (W. 897) Ta. veL, veN: white, pure, shining; Ma.veLLi:
silver, Venus etc (DED 4524)

129. Su. na; Ak. salAlu: to lie down

Ta. aNai: to embrace, hold, clasp etc: to extinguish etc (W.17) Also Ta. sali-: to be weary, to be
exhausted, spent, tired (W.419)

130. Su. nag; Ak. satu: to drink

Ta. nakku: to lick; Ko. nak: To. nok; Kol. na-k Nk. nAk; Pa.nEk: id (DED 2945). Ta, nanai: to
wet, moisten, soak etc (W. 657)

Note: Su na(g)-na(g)> Ta. nanai> Sk snaana: Ak. satu > Ta. cAtam : boiled rice (W.430)



ENTRY 7
 

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,
­ó¾ ­ÕÀ¾¡ÅРͧÁÕ ¦ºö¾¢ ÁÄ÷  ÀÄ ÀÆó ¾Á¢ú ¦º¡ü¸û ͧÁÕÅ¢ø À¢ýÚûǨ¾ì ¸¡ðÎŧ¾¡Î, ÀÄ «ì¸¡Ê ¦º¡ü¸Ùõ ¾Á¢Æ¢üÌ Åó¾¢ÕôÀ¨¾ì ¸¡ðÊ, ÀÆó¾Á¢Æ÷¸û «ì¸¡Ê Á츧ǡΠ¯¼ý Å¡úó¾¢ÕôÀ¾üÌ º¡ýÚ ¾Õ¸¢ýÈÐ. 'À¡ú' '«Ã¢' '«¨È' 'ºÃ¢' 'º£ø' 'º£÷' 'º£÷º¡ø' '®' 'º¢íÌ'  §À¡ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ­ýÚõ Å¡ú¸¢ýÈ ¦º¡ü¸û ¾¡õ. «ò§¾¡Î "º¢í¸¢" ±ýÈ ¦º¡ø ºô¾Á¢Î¾ø ±ýÈ ¸Õò¾¢ø À¢ø¸¢ýÈÐ.  §ÁÖõ ­¾üÌ⠫측ÊÂî  ¦º¡ø "á¸Ó' ±ýÚ ÅÕ¸¢ýÈÐ. ­¾É¡ø ­ó¾ "º¢í¸¢" ±ýÈ ãÄò¾¢Ä¢Õó§¾ 'ºí-¸£¾õ' À¢Èó¾¢Õì¸Ä¡õ.  "º¢í-¸£¾õ' ¯ÕÁ¡È¢ 'ºí-¸£¾õ' ¬Â¢Õì¸Ä¡õ. ¸£¾õ ±ýÀÐõ ¾Á¢ú ¾¡ý, ¸£îÍ ±ýÀ¾¢ý ¾¢Ã¢Ò. ­ýÛ¦Á¡ýÚ: «ì¸¡ÊÂî ¦º¡ü¸Ç¡¸¢Â 'ø¡Ó' 'º¸¡Ó' 'ºÀ¡Û' '͸ÓõÓ" ±ýÀÉ §À¡ýÈÅüÈ¢ý ¯ÕÅ¢¨Éì ¸¡½ ¦¾ÖíÌ ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ý º¡Â¨Äì ¸¡ñ¸¢ý§È¡õ.   ãÄò¾Á¢Æ¢Ä¢ÕóÐ À¢È ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦Á¡Æ¢¸û ±ýÚ À¢Ã¢óÐ ¾É¢ ¦Á¡Æ¢Âü ÜÚ¸§Ç¡Î ­Âí¸ò ¦¾¡¼í¸¢É ±ýÀ¨¾ô ÀüÈ¢ ¿¡õ Ò¾¢Â §¸¡½ò¾¢ø ¬Ã¡Â §ÅñÊÂÅ÷¸Ç¡¸ ­Õ츢ý§È¡õ. «ì¸¡ÊÂò ¾¡ì¸ò¾¡ø  ¦¾ÖíÌ Í§ÁÕ ¸¡Äò¾¢§Ä§Â À¢Ã¢ó¾¢Õì¸ì ÜÎõ. «ýÀ÷¸Ç¢ý º¢ó¾¨ÉìÌ ­¾¨É Ţθ¢ý§Èý. §ÁÖõ Á¢¸ «ÅºÃô ÀðÎ µ÷ ¦ÅȢ¢ý «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢ø ¾Á¢Æ¢Öõ ż¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢Öõ ´Õí§¸ À¢Öõ ¦º¡ü¸¨Ç ¯¼ý ż¦Á¡Æ¢ ±ýÚ ÓÊòРŢ¼ì ܼ¡Ð. «¨Å «ì¸¡ÊÂî ¦º¡ü¸Ç¡¸×õ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ. ¾Á¢¨Æ Ò¾¢Â¦Å¡Õ §¸¡½ò¾¢ø ¬Ã¡Â ͧÁÕò ¾Á¢ú ¬ö× ­ðÎî ¦ºø¸¢ýÈÐ

«ýÀý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý
 

131. Su. pil/pi-la : to make obscure, dirty

Ta. pAz: to go to ruin, be laid waste, become useless (DED3381) Ta. paza-: old (DED 3299)

132. Su.ra: to smite (the head)

Ta. ari: to cut off, hop away etc (DED 175); Ta. arai: to grind, todestroy by rubbing; Te. rAyu: to
be rubbed; rAcu: to rub, grind etc; Te. rAlu: to fall or drop down (DED 197)

133. Su.ra: to tell, bless
Ta. aRai: to speak, say, declare (DED 269, W.54) Kol.raz: to say, speak (DED 269)

134. Su.sa-du : to attain

Ta. atai: to obtain, enjoy, get etc(W 13,14); Ta. catai: to stop the progress of a thing; to be shut in
(W 392)

135. Su. sar, sar-re; Ak. kussudu, tarAdu : to make hurry, to chase out

Ta. caram: motion, locomotion; cari: to move , descend etc; to slip, slide off etc (W.414) Ak.
tarAdu> Ta. thuraththu?: id (DED 2744)

136. Su. si, Ak. malu, mullu: be full; to fill; Ak.masu: be enough

Ta. cI: lustre, glory etc (w. 465); cIr: prosperity, opulence, wealth, felicity etc; Ma. cIr: good
condition, stoutness, increase (DED 2157). Ta.mal-: richness, fertility; malar: to become full;
mali: to increase, become large; Ka. male: to be raised or elevated (DED 3170); Ta. malai: hi;;,
mountain; Te. mala: hill, mountain;Te. mala: id; Ka.male: mountain' forerst (DED 3082) Also
cimai: a hill, mountain (W.451) Also Ta.muzu: all. entire, whole,large; Ma.muzu: id (DED 4095)

137. Su. si(=sum); Ak. nadanU: to give

Ta. ii: to give to inferiors; Kol si-; NksI-; Pa.cI-: to give; kui: sIva, jIva: to give, to allow; Malt:
ciye: to give away (DED 2138)

138. Su. si-sa, Ak. sutessuru: to starighten out, prepare

Ta. cI-: to sweep offf, cleanse; cIvu: to sweep clean (DED 2139) Also Ta. sIrsaal: befitting,
praiseworthy etc. Alst Ta. suththam: cleanliness

139. Su. si-ig; Ak. sapAnu, suqammumu: to strike down, leve, silence

Ta. cingku: to diminish, wane,perish etc; cikku: to become lean or emaciated; cikal: to diminish,
decrease, perish (DED 2065) Ak. sapAnu> cappali: to flatten, be crushed etc Ma. cappata: flat
(DED 1924) Ta. samam: evenness, smoothness (W. 403) Ta. cummA: silently, quietly, in perfect
peace and rest; Ka. summa, summage, summane:id Kol. surmi: silent; Nk. surum: id (DED
2205)

140. Su. sig-gi; Ak. sagAmu, ragAmu: to echo, roar

Ta. cingku: to roar? (as in singkam: that which roars, the lion?); Ta. cinungku: to whine, pule,
snivel, whimper (W.446) Note Ak. ragAmu> Ta. irAkam, Sk.   rAga: melody .Also Ta.
sangkItham: classical music



ENTRY 8

«ýÀ÷¸§Ç,
¾Á¢ú Áì¸Ç¢¨¼§Â ͧÁÕò¾Á¢ú Á£Ð ­ýÛõ ¬÷Åõ À¢Èì¸Å¢ø¨Ä ±ýÚ ¿ýÈ¡¸ò ¦¾Ã¢¸¢ýÈÐ. ­ýÛõ ­óÐ ºÁÂõ §Å¾í¸Ç¢Ä¢ÕóÐ §¾¡ýÈ¢ÂÐ ±ýÈ «ó¾ À¨ÆÂô ¦À¡ö¨Â§Â Á£ñÎõ Á£ñÎõ ¦º¡øÄ¢Ôõ ±Ø¾¢Ôõ Á¸¢ú¸¢ýÈÉ÷. ­¾¢ø ¾Á¢ÆýÀ÷¸Ç¡¸¢Â ¾Á¢ú ­¨½Â «ýÀ÷¸Ùõ ­ÕôÀ¨¾ì ¸ñÎ §Å¾¨É¡¸ ­Õ츢ýÈÐ. µ÷ áüÈ¡ñÊüÌ §Áø ͧÁÕ ­Ä츢Âí¸û ¬öÅ¢üÌ ²üÈӨȢø áĸí¸û ÀÄÅüÈ¢ø ­Õ츢ýÈÉ.  ¦ºýÈ áüÈ¡ñʧħ À¢ô ¸¡øΦÅø ­õ¦Á¡Æ¢ ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ­Éò§¾¡Î §º÷ó¾Ð ±ýÚ ÜȢ¢Õ츢ýÈ¡÷. ­ýÈ¢øÄ¡Å¢ð¼¡Öõ ­ý¦É¡Õ ¿¡û ͧÁÕò¾Á¢Æ¢üÌ µ÷ Å¢Ê× ¸¡Äõ À¢ÈìÌõ ±ýÈ ¿õÀ¢ì¨¸Â¢ø ­ôÀ½¢ ¦¾¡¼÷¸¢ýÈÐ.
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 «ÉÀ÷¸ðÌ µ÷ §¸ûÅ¢. ­ó¾ ͧÁÕò ¾Á¢ú Á¼ø¸¨Çô ÀÊ츢ýÈ£÷¸Ç¡ «øÄР À¡÷ò¾×¼ý delete ¦ºöÐŢθ¢ýÈ£÷¸Ç¡?

«ýÀý ¸¢.§Ä¡¸¿¡¾ý
 

141. su. si-il; Ak.nuttu: to split, 94

Ta. silu: to open, split; Ko.cilv: to break along the length of the grain (DED2114) Ak.nuttu> Ta.
nutu, notu: to destroy, to subject , to subdue (W.687)

142. Su. silim: blessings, good wishes

Ta. siilam: good conduct, good morals, just deportment; right, justice, equity etc (W.469)

143. Su. su; Ak. alAku sa mAduti: to go or stand

K. su.l: to get up, wake up; Nk.sUL: to rise; get up (DED 2263)

144. Su. su, sur: to give out of kindeness ;su-ra: merciful

Ta. cura: to give abundantly, pour forth continuosly (DED 2353)

145. Su. se(d) ; Ak. supsuhu: to appease, assuage

Ta. cettu: to withdraw completely, to die ; Ta. santi(> Sk. shanti) : to alleviate , pacify
etc(W.433) Also Ta. sAtu: meakness, gentleness, peacebleness (W.432)

146. Su. se(g); 1. to support? 2. ill-disposed?

Ta. cEkkai: contrivance for sleeping; sleeping place of animals, birds (W.511)  Also Ta. ceku: to
destroy, kill (W.499)

147. Su. seg: to rain
Ta. cIkar, cIkari, cIkaram : a drop of rain or water; rain, ripple etc(W. 405& 466) Also Ka. cepu:
gush or spurt as milk; Ta. cepu: the milk to be secreted, flow, rush or spring forth (DED 2303)

148. Su. ti (te(g)): to palce eg su-ti : to place in the hands i.e. to obtain, accept etc

Ta. titi(>Skstiti): existence, preservation (W.583); Ta. tekku: to receive, take: Ka. tega, tegu, tegi
: to pull, draw towards oneself etc ; Kol. tiv: to pull; Nk.tivv: to pull, draw (DED 2804)

149. Su. til Ak. gamAru: to finish, cease

Ta. tIr: to end, finish, vanish etc; Ka. tIr: to be finished, end etc (DED 2683)

150. Su. tu-ud:; Ak. aladu: to give birth to (a song)

Ta. todu: to connect, join, communicate with; to frame, form, fa ricate, forge; to make verses,
compose poetry (W. 632) Ka. tudu/todu: to join, put together,; Ta. todu: to begin etc (DED 2865, 2866)



 
 
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At 09:04 PM 4/16/99 -0700, you wrote:
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[ ¯ñ¨Á¾¡ý. ¬Â¢Ûõ ­ô§À÷ôÀð¼ ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢Âø «È¢»÷¸Ùõ ²ý ¾Âì¸í ¸¡ðθ¢ýÈ¡÷¸û ±ýÚ ¦¾Ã¢Â.Å¢ø¨Ä. ¾Á¢Æò¾¢ø ¦ÅǢ¡Ìõ  ¬öÅ¢¾ú¸û ÀÄÅüÈ¢ø ­Ð ¦¾¡¼÷À¡É ÀÄ ¸¡ðΨø¨Ç ¦ÅǢ¢ðÎû§Çý. ¯Ä¸ò ¾Á¢ú ¬Ã¡ö ¿¢ÚÅÉò¾¢ý ¬öÅ¢¾ú,  The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies(Chennai),  §ÁÖõ «ñ½¡Á¨Ä Àø¸¨Ä ¦ÅǢ¢Îõ  ¬öÅ¢¾Æ¡¸¢Â '¦¾ý¦Á¡Æ¢' §À¡ýÈÅüÈ¢ø ¬ö× ¦¿È¢ À¢¨Æ¡¾ Ũ¸Â¢ø  ±ÉÐ ¸ðΨøû 1975 ¬õ ¬ñÎ ¦¾¡¼í¸¢ ÅóÐûÇÉ. ­ôÀÊ¢ÕóÐõ ²ý ¾Á¢ú «È¢»÷¸Ç¢¼§Á¡ «øÄÐ Àø¸¨Ä¸Ç¢¼§Á¡ ¬÷Åõ À¢Èì¸Å¢ø¨Ä? ­Å÷¸ðÌô ҨĨÁ ­ø¨Ä¡? ¬÷Åõ ­ø¨Ä¡? ÒĨÁ ­ø¨Ä ±ýÚ ¦º¡øÄ ÓÊ¡Ð. ­ó¾ ­ÕÀ¾¡õ áüÈ¡ñÊø ¾Á¢Æ÷¸û ¿íÌ ÅÇ÷ò¾ ¸¨Ä¡¸ ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢Âø Å¢Çí̸¢ýÈÐ. «Ð ºÃ¢ ¾Á¢ú ­ÉòÐ «È¢»÷¸ðÌ ­ôÀÊôÀð¼ ¬ö׸Ǣø ¬÷Åõ ­ø¨Ä§Â, ²ý? ¦Åû¨ÇÂ÷¸û ÂôÀ¡É¢Â÷¸û  §À¡ý§È¡÷ ­ôÀÊ¡ ­Õ츢ýÈÉ÷?]
 

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[ ¯ñ¨Á¾¡ý «¾É¡ø ¾¡ý «Êì¸Ê "­Õì¸Ä¡õ" " ¿¢¨É츢ý§Èý" ±ý¦ÈøÄ¡õ ¾ÅÈ¡Ð ÜÈ¢ ÅÕ¸¢ý§Èý. §ÁÖõ ­Ð ÀÄ À¢Ã¡Á½÷¸Ç£ý ±Îò¾¾ü¦¸øÄ¡õ ż¦Á¡Æ¢ ãÄõ ¸üÀ¢ìÌõ §À¡ì¨¸ ºüÚ ¾¨¼¦ºöÔõ ±ýÚõ ¿¢¨É츢ý§Èý. ¯Ä¸¦ÁøÄ¡õ ¿¢¨Èó¾ µ÷ ¦ÀâÂì Üð¼§Á ¦º¡øÄ¢ ¨Åò¾¡ü§À¡ø ż¦Á¡Æ¢ì§¸ Å£½¡¸ ¬ì¸õ §º÷ôÀÐ ¾í¸ÙìÌõ ¦¾Ã¢ó¾ ´ýÚ¾¡§É. ¾Á¢Æ¢üÌõ ż¦Á¡Æ¢ìÌõ ¦À¡ÐÅ¡Â ÀÄ ¦º¡ü¸ðÌ «Å÷¸û ¯¼ý §ÅÚ º¢ó¾¨É¢ýÈ¢ ż¦Á¡Æ¢ ãÄõ ¸üÀ¢òÐÅ¢¼ ¯¼ý ²¨É "«È¢»÷¸Ùõ" ²üÚ즸¡û¸¢ýÈÉ÷.  ¾¢Ã¡Å¢¼ ¦Á¡Æ¢¸¨Ç ¬Ã¡öó¾ §ÀẢâÂ÷  Burrow, Emeneu §À¡ý§È¡÷¸Ùõ ­ô§À¡ì¨¸ì ¸ñÎ ÅÕó¾¢ÂÐ ¯ñÎ. ¬¾¡Ãí¸û §À¡ÐÁ¡É «ÇÅ¢üÌ ­ø¨Ä ±ýÀÐ ¯ñ¨Á¾¡ý. À¢È «ýÀ÷¸û ­ôÀÊôÀð¼ ¬¾¡Ãí¸¨Çò §¾Ê ¾ÃÄ¡§Á ±ýÈ ±ñ½ò¾¢ø  ­ì¸ÕòÐì¸¨Ç Óý¨Å츢ý§Èý. «ùÅÇ×¾¡ý. ­ôÀÊÔõ ­Õì¸Ä¡õ ±ýÈ ±ñ½ò¨¾ò §¾¡üÈ¢Å¢ð¼¡§Ä §À¡Ð§Á, ±ÉÐ §¿¡ì¸ò¨¾ «¨¼óÐŢ𼾡¸ Á¸¢ú§Åý. ¿¡ý ż¦Á¡Æ¢¨Â «È¢ó¾Åý «øÄ «¾É¡ø ±ÉÐ «È¢Å¢ý ±ø¨ÄìÌ Á£È¢ ¿¡ý ¦ºøÄìܼ¡Ð ±ýÀ¾ü¸¡¸ò¾¡ý ­ýÛõ ¬Ã¡ÂôÀ¼ §ÅñÊ ¸ÕòÐì¸Ç¡¸ «Åü¨È Óý¨Å츢ý§Èý.]
 
 

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[­ôÀÊÀð¼ ¸ðΨø¨ÇÔõ ±Ø¾¢ ­Õ츢ý§Èý. But very technical. ¾Á¢ú ¦Á¡Æ¢Â¢ý Å¢¨É¡ø §¾¡üÈÅÃÄ¡ü¨È ¿¡ý ¯Õš츢 ­Âì¸Å¢Ä츽 «ÊôÀ¨¼Â¢ø §ÅñÊ «ÇÅ¢üÌ º¡ýÚ¸¨Çò ¾óÐ µ÷ ¦¿Ê ¸ðΨ蠱ؾ¢ ­Õ츢ý§Èý. Sumerian si-in and Old Tamil cin: A study in the Historical Evolution of the Tamil Verbal System  ±ýÈ ¸ðΨà International Institute of Tamil Studies ±ýÈ ¨ÁÂò¾¢ý  Dec. 1989  ¾Á¢Æ¢Âø ¬öÅ¢¾Æ¢ø ¦ÅÇ¢ÅóÐûÇÐ. ¾í¸ÇÐ Ó¸Åâ¨Âò ¾ó¾¡ø «ëôÀ¢ ¨Å츢ý§Èý. ÅÇ¡¸ò¾¢ø §À¡¼ ¯¾Å¢É¡ø ¦ÀâÐõ Á¸¢ú§Åý. ­ù§ÅñΧ¸¡û ²¨É ­¨½Â «ýÀ÷¸ðÌõ ¯Ã¢ÂÐ.  ¾Á¢ÂÉ¡ö «¨Éò¨¾Ôõ ±ýÉ¡ø ¦ºöÂÓÊÂÅ¢ø¨Ä]
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